2005

M. Bartolini, V. Cavrini, V. Andrisano

Journal of Chromatography A, 1065 (2005) 135-144

The aim of the present study was to optimize the preparation of an immobilized acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-based micro-immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) for inhibition studies. For this purpose two polymeric monolithic disks (CIM, 3 mm × 12 mm i.d.) with different reactive groups (epoxy and ethylendiamino) and a packed silica column (3 mm × 5 mm i.d.; Glutaraldehyde-P, 40 μm) were selected as solid chromatographic supports. All these reactors were characterized in terms of rate of immobilization, stability, conditioning time for HPLC analyses, optimum mobile phase and peak shape, aspecific interactions and costs. Advantages and disadvantages were defined for each system. Immobilization through Schiff base linkage gave more stable reactors without any significant change in the enzyme behaviour; monolithic matrices showed very short conditioning time and fast recovery of the enzymatic activity that could represent very important features in high throughput analysis and satisfactory reproducibility of immobilization yield. Unpacked silica material allowed off-line low costs studies for the optimization of the immobilization step.

Purchase full article

Full view

2004

A. Podgornik, J. Jančar, M. Merhar, S. Kozamernik, D. Glover, K. Čuček, M. Barut, A. Štrancar

J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 60 (2004) 179–189

Monoliths represent a special class of chromatographic supports. In contrast to other stationary phases, they consist of a single piece of highly porous material through which a sample is mainly transported by convection. As a consequence, monoliths enable fast separations and exhibit flow-unaffected properties, which make them attractive for purification of macromolecules like proteins or DNA. In this work, methacrylate-based monolithic columns with the bed volume up to 8000 ml are characterized. They perform high-resolution separations of several hundreds of grams of proteins per hour by utilizing liter per minute flow rates. They are incompressible under these operating conditions and resistant to strong alkaline conditions.

Purchase full article

Full view

T. Hall, D. C. Wood, C. E. Smith

Journal of Chromatography A, 1041 (2004) 87–93(2004) 87–93

Monolithic media were compared with Q- and SP-Sepharose high performance chromatography for preparative purification and with Q- and SP-5PW chromatography for analysis of a pegylated form of myelopoietin (MPO), an engineered hematopoietic growth factor. The use of either monolithic or Sepharose based supports for preparative chromatography produced highly purified pegylated MPO with the monolithic media demonstrating peak resolution and repeatability at flow rates of 1 and 5 ml/min resulting in run times as much as five-fold shorter compared to Sepharose separations. The monolithic disks also resulted in 10-fold shorter run times for the analytical chromatography, however, their chromatographic profiles and peak symmetry were not as sharp compared to their Q-5PW and SP-5PW counterparts.

Purchase full article

Full view

H. Podgornik, A. Podgornik

Journal of Chromatography B, 799 (2004) 343–347

Different chromatographic methods including chromatofocusing are used for separation of manganese peroxidase (MnP) isoforms and their isolation from the fungal growth medium. We tested strong anion exchange methacrylate based monolithic columns as a stationary phase for fast separation of MnP’s. Sodium acetate buffers of two different pH values (6 and 4) were used for formation of reproducible pH gradient. The entire cycle, involving analysis and column regeneration, was completed in 3 min. Use of pH gradient showed better MnP isoform separation comparing to the salt gradient, while application of combined pH–salt gradient, resulted in further improvement.

Purchase full article

Full view

E. Vlakh, A. Novikov, G. Vlasov, T. Tennikova

Journal of Peptide Science, 10: 719–730 (2004)

Monoliths based on a copolymer of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) can be used directly as sorbents for affinity chromatography after solid phase peptide synthesis. The quality of the synthesized products, the amount of grown peptides on a support and the reproducibility of the process must be considered. A determination of the quantity of the introducing β-Ala (and, consequently, the total amount of synthesized peptide) was carried out. Three peptides complementary to recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) have been synthesized using Fmoc-chemistry on GMA-EDMA disks. The peptidyl ligands were analysed by amino acid analysis, ES-MS and HPLC methods.

The affinity binding parameters were obtained from frontal elution data. The results were compared with those established for GMA-EDMA affinity sorbents formed by the immobilization of the same but separately synthesized and purified ligands. The immobilization on GMA-EDMA disks was realized using a one-step reaction between the amino groups of the synthetic ligand and the original epoxy groups of monolithic material. The affinity constants found for two kinds of sorbent did not vary significantly. Finally, the directly obtained affinity sorbents were tested for t-PA separation from a cellular supernatant.

Purchase full article

Full view

D. Ren, N. A. Penner, B. E. Slentz, H. D. Inerowicz, M. Rybalko, F. E. Regnier

Journal of Chromatography A, 1031 (2004) 87–92(2004) 87–92

Immobilized copper(II) affinity chromatography [Cu(II)-immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC)] has been used in proteomics to simplify sample mixtures by selecting histidine-containing peptides from proteolytic digests. This paper examines the specificity of four different support materials with an iminodiacetic acid (IDA) stationary phase in the selection of only histidine-containing peptides in the single step capture-release mode. Three of the sorbents examined were commercially available: HiTrap Chelating HP (agarose), TSK Chelate-5PW, and Poros 20MC. IDA was also immobilized on CIM discs (monolithic glycidylmethacrylate-ethylene dimethacrylate). Tryptic digests of transferrin and β-galactosidase were used as model samples to evaluate these sorbents. It was found that among the examined matrices, the TSK Chelate-5PW sorbent bound histidine-containing peptides the strongest, while Poros matrix was found to have a high degree of non-specific bindings. Agarose-based columns showed relatively high selectivity and specificity.

Purchase full article

Full view

E. G. Vlakh, A. Tappe, C. Kasper, T. B. Tennikova

Journal of Chromatography B, 810 (2004) 15–23

Plasminogen activators are the proteases which convert plasminogen into plasmin dissolving, in its turn, the major component of blood clots, fibrin. They are extremely useful in heart attack therapy. Modern and most appropriate way of scaled up production of these valuable proteins is gene engineering. In this case, a separation and a purification of target product become the important steps of the whole process. Recently developed affinity chromatography on short monolithic columns seems to be a very attractive method for these purposes. High speed of a process prevents the protein’s denaturation due to temperature or/and solvents influence. The better mass transfer mechanism (convection rather than diffusion) allows considering only biospecific complexing as time limiting step. Specificity of several synthetic peptides to plasminogen activators have been studied by affinity chromatography on short monolithic columns. Peptide ligands were synthesized by conventional solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). The immobilization procedure was carried out as a one step process at static conditions. The results of quantitative evaluation of such affinity interactions were compared with those established for plasminogen that is the natural affinity counterpart to both proteases. Additionally, some of investigated peptides were synthesized directly on GMA–EDMA disks and their affinity properties were compared with those established for the case of immobilized ligands. The possibility of using of synthetic peptidyl ligands for plasminogen activators isolation from native cell supernatant and model protein mixtures has been demonstrated.

Purchase full article

Full view

D. G. Glover, M. Barut, A. Podgornik, M. Peterka, A. Štrancar

BioProcess International, Oct 2004, 58-63

The sequencing of the human genome and the rise of proteomics have increased the numbers of potential therapeutic targets. Biotechnology companies need to increase productivity, decrease discovery and production costs, and use technologies that easily transfer across departments if they wish to remain competitive. The most important tools are those for separation (purification) of target substance(s). They should be easy to use and offer an identical performance and purification profile no matter where they are implemented — in discovery, production, or quality assurance (QA).

CIM Convective Interaction Media short monolithic columns are just such a unifying technology. Produced in shapes and sizes from microliter to liter scale, they represent an evolutionary approach to meeting biochromatographic separation requirements in research and product development. Able to withstand 1 M NaOH with no loss of capacity or resolution, these easily scalable columns have been optimized for analysis and cGMP production of complex biomolecules ranging from oligonucleotides and plasmid DNA (pDNA) to proteins and viruses.

Read full article

Full view

E. G. Vlakh, A. Tappe, C. Kasper, T. B. Tennikova

Journal of Chromatography B, 810 (2004) 15–23

Plasminogen activators are the proteases which convert plasminogen into plasmin dissolving, in its turn, the major component of blood clots, fibrin. They are extremely useful in heart attack therapy. Modern and most appropriate way of scaled up production of these valuable proteins is gene engineering. In this case, a separation and a purification of target product become the important steps of the whole process. Recently developed affinity chromatography on short monolithic columns seems to be a very attractive method for these purposes. High speed of a process prevents the protein’s denaturation due to temperature or/and solvents influence. The better mass transfer mechanism (convection rather than diffusion) allows considering only biospecific complexing as time limiting step. Specificity of several synthetic peptides to plasminogen activators have been studied by affinity chromatography on short monolithic columns. Peptide ligands were synthesized by conventional solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). The immobilization procedure was carried out as a one step process at static conditions. The results of quantitative evaluation of such affinity interactions were compared with those established for plasminogen that is the natural affinity counterpart to both proteases. Additionally, some of investigated peptides were synthesized directly on GMA–EDMA disks and their affinity properties were compared with those established for the case of immobilized ligands. The possibility of using of synthetic peptidyl ligands for plasminogen activators isolation from native cell supernatant and model protein mixtures has been demonstrated.

Purchase full article

Full view

E. G. Vlakh, A. Tappe, C. Kasper, T. B. Tennikova

Journal of Chromatography B, 810 (2004) 15–23

Plasminogen activators are the proteases which convert plasminogen into plasmin dissolving, in its turn, the major component of blood clots, fibrin. They are extremely useful in heart attack therapy. Modern and most appropriate way of scaled up production of these valuable proteins is gene engineering. In this case, a separation and a purification of target product become the important steps of the whole process. Recently developed affinity chromatography on short monolithic columns seems to be a very attractive method for these purposes. High speed of a process prevents the protein’s denaturation due to temperature or/and solvents influence. The better mass transfer mechanism (convection rather than diffusion) allows considering only biospecific complexing as time limiting step. Specificity of several synthetic peptides to plasminogen activators have been studied by affinity chromatography on short monolithic columns. Peptide ligands were synthesized by conventional solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). The immobilization procedure was carried out as a one step process at static conditions. The results of quantitative evaluation of such affinity interactions were compared with those established for plasminogen that is the natural affinity counterpart to both proteases. Additionally, some of investigated peptides were synthesized directly on GMA–EDMA disks and their affinity properties were compared with those established for the case of immobilized ligands. The possibility of using of synthetic peptidyl ligands for plasminogen activators isolation from native cell supernatant and model protein mixtures has been demonstrated.

Purchase full article

Full view

E. Vlakh, N. Ostryanina, A. Jungbauer, T. Tennikova

Journal of Biotechnology 107 (2004) 275–284

Present report demonstrates the examples of practical application of sorbents obtained via direct solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) on GMA-EDMA monoliths (CIM® Disks, BIA Separations, d.o.o., Ljubljana, Slovenia). Several peptidyl complementary to recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) ligands have been synthesized using Fmoc-chemistry. This approach affords to get directly sorbents for affinity chromatography avoiding a cleavage of synthesized peptides from a carrier following by their isolation, analysis and purification. The affinity binding parameters were found from experimental frontal analysis data. The results have been compared with those established for CIM® affinity sorbents obtained by immobilization of the same but preliminarily synthesized on convenient resin, cleaved and purified ligands on the disks using one step reaction with epoxy groups of monolithic material. It has been shown that the affinity constants of these two kinds of sorbent did not vary significantly. Directly obtained affinity sorbents have been used for fast and efficient on-line analysis as well as semi-preparative isolation of recombinant t-PA from crude cellular supernatant.

Purchase full article

Full view

K. Branović, D. Forčić, J. Ivancic, A. Štrancar, M. Barut, T. Kosutic Gulija, R. Zgorelec, R. Mazuran

Journal of Chromatography B, 801 (2004) 331–337

Anion-exchange chromatography is one of the most important methods in downstream processing of plasmid DNA, both as a process and as an analytical technique. Separation of plasmid DNA on traditional particle-based anion-exchange supports is usually slow. Moreover, such supports have a low capacity for plasmid DNA due to the steric exclusion effects. In this work, the separation of plasmid DNA using short monolithic columns, Convective Interaction Media, will be presented. It will be demonstrated that plasmid DNA can be purified from bacterial cells using alkaline lysis followed by chromatography on a very short weak anion-exchange chromatographic columns—disks—with good purity and quality within a short time. Furthermore, the separation of plasmid DNA from cell RNA can be carried out without the need of adding RNAse. Fast and efficient method for in-process control of the purified plasmid will be described as well.

Purchase full article

Full view

M. Benčina, A. Podgornik, A. Štrancar

J. Sep. Sci. 2004, 27, 801–810

The suitability of methacrylate based anion exchange monolithic supports for the separation and purification of plasmid and genomic DNA has been explored. The effect of the size of the channels, ionic strength of the solution, and ligand density on the dynamic binding capacity has been investigated. The dynamic binding capacity was found to be flow independent, at least up to a linear velocity of 700 cm h–1, and exceeded 9 mg mL–1 for all types of DNA. The recovery depends on the pH value of the mobile phase and its ionic strength as well as on the density of the active groups. Under optimal conditions recoveries exceeding 80% were obtained even for genomic DNA. Finally, the suitability of this approach is demonstrated by purification of a real-life sample.

Purchase full article

Full view

P. Kramberger, N. Petrovič, A. Štrancar, M. Ravnikar

Journal of Virological Methods 120 (2004) 51-57120 (2004) 51-57

A new chromatographic medium, Convective Interaction Media® (CIM) disk monolithic columns, was applied to plant virus concentration. The ability of the columns to concentrate highly diluted plant viruses was tested on a model plant virus, rod-shaped tomato mosaic virus (ToMV). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the quantitative analysis. The virus was concentrated using a strong anion exchanger, CIM quaternary amine (QA) disk monolithic column. A high salt concentration was used to elute the concentrated virus from the columns. It has been demonstrated that ToMV, which had been diluted considerably below the sensitivity of ELISA, was concentrated by several orders of magnitude in the one-step procedure. Concentrated virus preparations could be used directly for ELISA testing. In comparison with methods described for concentrating plant viruses from irrigation water, the above procedure may provide a much faster and more efficient way to concentrate highly diluted plant viruses. The procedure could be applied to the testing of other highly diluted plant viruses, and to concentrating viruses for antiserum production.

Purchase full article

Full view

M. Bartolini, V. Cavrini, V. Andrisano

Journal of Chromatography A, 1031 (2004) 27–34(2004) 27–34

The development and characterization of a human recombinant acetylcholinesterase (hrAChE) micro-immobilized-enzyme reactor (IMER), prepared by using an in situ immobilization procedure is reported. hrAChE was covalently immobilized on an ethylenediamine (EDA) monolithic convective interaction media (CIM) disk (12mm x 3mm i.d.), previously derivatized with glutaraldehyde. The optimal conditions for the immobilization were: 12 μg of enzyme dissolved in 800 μl of phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 6.0). The mixture was gently agitated overnight at 4 °C. The resulting Schiff bases were reduced by cyanoborohydride and the remaining aldehydic groups were condensed with monoethanolamine. Under these conditions, 0.22 U of hrAChE were immobilized with retention of 3.0% of the initial enzymatic activity. The activity of the immobilized hrAChE was stable for over 60 days. The activity and kinetic parameters of the hrAChE micro-IMER were investigated by inserting the micro-IMER in a HPLC system and it was demonstrated that the enzyme retained its activity. The micro-IMER was characterized in terms of units of immobilized enzyme and best conditions for immobilization yield. IMERs were compared for their relative enzyme stability, immobilized units, yield and aspecific matrix interactions. The effect of AChE inhibitors was evaluated by the simultaneous injection of each inhibitor with the substrate. The relative IC50 values were found in agreement with those derived by the conventional kinetic spectrophotometric method. In comparison with previously developed AChE-based IMERs, AChE monolithic micro-IMER showed advantages in terms of reduction of analysis time (2 min), lower aspecific matrix interactions and lower backpressure. Included in a HPLC system, it can be used for the rapid screening of new compounds’ inhibitory potency. The advantages over the conventional methods are the increased enzyme stability and system automation which allows a large number of compounds to be analyzed in continuous.

Purchase full article

Full view

K. Benčina, A. Podgornik, A. Štrancar, M. Benčina

Journal of Separation Science 2004, 27, 811-818

Monolithic Convective Interaction Media (CIM) have been activated with epoxide and imidazole carbamate functionalities and used as supports for covalent immobilization of protein A, deoxyribonuclease I, and trypsin. The efficiency of immobilization for these proteins was determined from the amount of bound IgG, degradation of DNA, and hydrolysis of Nα-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester, respectively. The respective biological activities of trypsin and the binding capacity of protein A immobilized via imidazole carbamate groups were 11.45 and 2.25 times higher than those obtained for epoxide matrix while they were practically equal for deoxyribonuclease I. The kinetics of immobilization was studied in detail for trypsin under dynamic conditions and revealed that the enzyme immobilized via imidazole carbamate groups already reached its highest activity in 5 min. In contrast, a much longer time was required for immobilization via epoxy groups.

Purchase full article

Full view

P. N. Nesterenko, M. A. Rybalko

Mendeleev Commun. 2004

The continuous flow gradient and its effect on chromatographic parameters were investigated for the separations of inorganic anions on a monolithic porous disk with bonded hydroxyproline residues.

Purchase full article

Full view

2003

E. G. Vlakh, G. A. Platonova, G. P. Vlasov, C. Kasper, A. Tappe, G. Kretzmer, T. B. Tennikova

Journal of Chromatography A, 992 (2003) 109–119

The recently discovered serine protease called tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) enables efficient dissolution of blood clots. t-PA works by converting plasminogen into its active form, plasmin, dissolving the major component of blood clots, fibrin. The activation of plasminogen by t-PA is enhanced by the presence of fibrin, and this is probably due to the fact that both plasminogen and t-PA possess high affinity binding sites for fibrin. Besides fibrin, fibrin monomers and some fibrin(ogen) degradation products, certain synthetic polymers (for instance, poly-l-lysines) can provide the same stimulation of plasminogen activation. The recently developed high-performance monolithic-disk chromatography, HPMDC, could become the most convenient way to study biological pairs of interest. The inherent speed of HPMDC isolation facilitates the recovery of a biologically active product, since the exposure to putative denaturing influences, such as solvents or temperature, is reduced. The better mass transfer mechanism (convection rather than diffusion) allows to consider only the biospecific reaction as time limiting. The step-by-step modeling of hypothetical affinity pairs between t-PA and different types of oligo/polymer forms of linear and branched lysine derivatives obtained both by initiated polycondensation and solid-phase peptide synthesis using HPMDC seemed to be possible and a quite useful tool. The results of quantitative evaluation of such affinity interactions were compared with those established for natural affinity counterparts to t-PA (monoclonal antibodies, plasminogen, fibrinogen). The role of steric structure of lysine ligands was observed and analyzed. The results allowing to make the practical choice of affinity systems will be used for development of fast and efficient analytical and preparative methods for the downstream processes of recombinant production of this valuable enzyme.

Purchase full article

Full view

I. Mihelič, T. Koloini, A. Podgornik

Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 87, 2326-2334 (2003)

Monolithic stationary phases are becoming increasingly important in the field of liquid chromatography. Methacrylate-based monoliths are produced via free-radical bulk polymerization. The preparation of large-volume monoliths is a major problem because the intensive heat released during polymerization causes distortion of the porous monolithic structure. This work presents experimental measurements of temperature distributions during polymerization in moulds of different sizes and at various experimental conditions. A mathematical model for the prediction of temporal and spatial temperature distribution during the polymerization of methacrylate-based monolithic columns is introduced. The polymerization is described by an unsteady-state heat conduction equation with the generation of heat related to the general kinetics of polymerization. Predictions from the mathematical model are in good agreement with the experimental measurements at different experimental conditions. A method for construction of large-volume monolithic columns is presented and an attempt is made to adopt the developed mathematical model in annular geometry.

Purchase full article

Full view

P. Milavec Žmak, H. Podgornik, J. Jančar, A. Podgornik, A. Štrancar

Journal of Chromatography A, 1006 (2003) 195–205

Convective Interaction Media (CIM) columns are monolithic columns optimized for the separation of macromolecules. Some of them operate in the axial mode while others operate in the radial mode depending on the column size. In this work we tested the approach suggested by Yamamoto [Biotechnol. Bioeng., 48 (1995) 444] for transfer of gradient methods between columns of different size. A simplified equation for transfer was derived together with a criterion for its application. Separation was evaluated for a standard protein mixture and peroxidase enzymes present in fermentation broth. Salt and pH gradients were applied. Similar resolutions were obtained for each sample on all columns which demonstrates that the proposed approach can be successfully used for method scale-up on this type of column.

Purchase full article

Full view