F. W. Krainer, R. Pletzenauer, L. Rossetti, C. Herwig, A. Glieder, O. Spadiut
Protein Expression and Purification 95 (2014) 104–112

The plant enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is used in several important industrial and medical applications, of which especially biosensors and diagnostic kits describe an emerging field. Although there is an increasing demand for high amounts of pure enzyme preparations, HRP is still isolated from the plant as a mixture of different isoenzymes with different biochemical properties. Based on a recent next generation sequencing approach of the horseradish transcriptome, we produced 19 individual HRP isoenzymes recombinantly in the yeast Pichia pastoris. After optimizing a previously reported 2-step purification strategy for the recombinant isoenzyme HRP C1A by substituting an unfavorable size exclusion chromatography step with an anion exchange step using a monolithic column, we purified the 19 HRP isoenzymes with varying success. Subsequent basic biochemical characterization revealed differences in catalytic activity, substrate specificity and thermal stability of the purified HRP preparations. The preparations of the isoenzymes HRP A2A and HRP A2B were found to be highly interesting candidates for future applications in diagnostic kits with increased sensitivity.

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F. W. Krainer, R. Pletzenauer, L. Rossetti, C. Herwig, A. Glieder, O. Spadiut

Protein Expression and Purification 95 (2014) 104–112

The plant enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is used in several important industrial and medical applications, of which especially biosensors and diagnostic kits describe an emerging field. Although there is an increasing demand for high amounts of pure enzyme preparations, HRP is still isolated from the plant as a mixture of different isoenzymes with different biochemical properties. Based on a recent next generation sequencing approach of the horseradish transcriptome, we produced 19 individual HRP isoenzymes recombinantly in the yeast Pichia pastoris. After optimizing a previously reported 2-step purification strategy for the recombinant isoenzyme HRP C1A by substituting an unfavorable size exclusion chromatography step with an anion exchange step using a monolithic column, we purified the 19 HRP isoenzymes with varying success. Subsequent basic biochemical characterization revealed differences in catalytic activity, substrate specificity and thermal stability of the purified HRP preparations. The preparations of the isoenzymes HRP A2A and HRP A2B were found to be highly interesting candidates for future applications in diagnostic kits with increased sensitivity.

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D. Josić, H. Schwinn, A. Štrancar, A. Podgornik, M. Barut, Y. P. Lim, M. Vodopivec

Journal of Chromatography A, 803 (1998) 61–71

Different ligands with high molecular masses are immobilized on compact, porous separation units and used for affinity chromatography. In subsequent experiments different enzymes are immobilized and used for converting substrates with low and high molecular masses. Disk or tube with immobilized concanavalin A (ConA) are used as model systems for lectin affinity chromatography. The enzyme glucose oxidase is used as a standard protein to test the ConA units. Subsequently glycoproteins from plasma membranes of rat liver are separated, using units with immobilized ConA. The enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV, which is used as a model protein in the experiments, is enriched about 40-fold in a single step, with a yield of over 90%. The results are only slightly better than those obtained with ConA when it is immobilized on bulk supports. The important improvement lies in the reduction of separation time to only 1 h. Experiments concerning the isolation of monoclonal antibodies against clotting factor VIII (FVIII) are carried out on disks, combining anion-exchange chromatography and protein A affinity chromatography as a model for multidimensional chromatography. Both IgG (bound to the protein A disk) and accompanying proteins (bound to the anion-exchange disk) from mouse ascites fluid are retarded and eluted separately. With the immobilized enzymes invertase and glucose oxidase (GOX) the corresponding substrates with low molecular masses, saccharose and glucose, are converted. It is shown that the amount of immobilized enzyme and the concentration of the substrate are responsible for the extent of the conversion, whereas the flow-rates used in the experiments have no effect at all. The influence of immobilization chemistry was investigated with GOX. Indirect immobilization with ConA as spacer proved to be the best alternative. With trypsin, immobilized on a disk, substrates with high molecular masses are digested in flow-through. For optimal digestion the proteins have to be denatured in the buffer for sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrlyamide gel electrophoresis prior to application. In contrast to the conversion of substrates with low molecular masses, flow-rates play an important part in conversion of substrates with high molecular masses. With lower flow-rates a higher degree of digestion is achieved.

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H. Podgornik, A. Podgornik

Enzyme and Microbial Technology 31 (2002) 855–861

The possibility of covalent attachment of LiP H2 and LiP H8 to CIM monoliths was studied. Due to negligible diffusional resistance, they can be useful tools to study characteristics of the immobilized lignin peroxidase (LiP). Immobilization to epoxy groups was performed using alkaline conditions (borate-phosphate buffer; pH 7.5). Characteristics of immobilized LiP were compared and factors that influence their biologic activity were evaluated using flow through experiments. Enzyme kinetics was determined via oxidation of veratryl alcohol (VA) into veratraldehyde (Vald). While VA oxidation rate increased by increasing flow rate (up to 1.5 ml/min) for LiP H2, it was almost constant in a wide flow rate range for LiP H8. This observation together with the stepwise deactivation of the enzyme by consecutive experiments was ascribed to accumulation of the formed Vald inside the support. Calculated kinetic parameters showed 3–5 times higher Km value for VA for both tested isoforms in comparison to free enzyme. The catalytic constant was found to be approximately 0.5 s-1 for both isoforms. Immobilized LiP H8 was used for decolorization of azo dye Mahogany.

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Y.-P. Lim, D. Josić, H. Callanan, J. Brown, D. C. Hixson

Journal of Chromatography A, 1065 (2005) 39–43(2005) 39–43

Epoxy-activated monolithic CIM disks seem to be excellent supports for immobilization of protein ligands. The potential use of enzymes, immobilized on monolithic disks for rapid preparative cleavage proteins in solution was investigated. Digestion of complex plasma proteins was demonstrated by using inter-alpha inhibitors with elastase, immobilized on epoxy-activated CIM disks. Recently, a monoclonal antibody against human inter-alpha inhibitor proteins (MAb 69.31) was developed. MAb 69.31 blocks the inhibitory activity of inter-alpha inhibitor proteins to serine proteases. These results suggest that the epitope defined by this antibody is located within or proximal to the active site of the inhibitor molecule. This antibody, immobilized on monolithic disk, was used for very rapid isolation of inter-alpha proteins. The isolated complex protein was used for enzymatic digestion and isolation of cleavage products, especially from inter-alpha inhibitor light chain to elucidate precisely the target sequence for MAb 69.31 by N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Bovine pancreatic elastase immobilized on monolithic disk cleaves inter-alpha inhibitor protein complex into small fragments which are still reactive with MAb 69.31. One of these proteolytic fragments was isolated and partially sequenced. It could be shown that this sequence is located at the beginning of two proteinase inhibitor domains of the inter-alpha inhibitor light chain (bikunin). Elastase immobilized on monolithic disk offers a simple and rapid method for preparative isolation of protease cleavage fragments. The immobilized enzyme is stable and still active after repeated runs. A partial or complete digestion can be achieved by varying the flow rate.

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E. G. Vlakh, A. Tappe, C. Kasper, T. B. Tennikova

Journal of Chromatography B, 810 (2004) 15–23

Plasminogen activators are the proteases which convert plasminogen into plasmin dissolving, in its turn, the major component of blood clots, fibrin. They are extremely useful in heart attack therapy. Modern and most appropriate way of scaled up production of these valuable proteins is gene engineering. In this case, a separation and a purification of target product become the important steps of the whole process. Recently developed affinity chromatography on short monolithic columns seems to be a very attractive method for these purposes. High speed of a process prevents the protein’s denaturation due to temperature or/and solvents influence. The better mass transfer mechanism (convection rather than diffusion) allows considering only biospecific complexing as time limiting step. Specificity of several synthetic peptides to plasminogen activators have been studied by affinity chromatography on short monolithic columns. Peptide ligands were synthesized by conventional solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). The immobilization procedure was carried out as a one step process at static conditions. The results of quantitative evaluation of such affinity interactions were compared with those established for plasminogen that is the natural affinity counterpart to both proteases. Additionally, some of investigated peptides were synthesized directly on GMA–EDMA disks and their affinity properties were compared with those established for the case of immobilized ligands. The possibility of using of synthetic peptidyl ligands for plasminogen activators isolation from native cell supernatant and model protein mixtures has been demonstrated.

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I. Mihelič, A. Podgornik, T. Koloini

Journal of Chromatography A, 987 (2003) 159–168

This work investigates the influence of temperature on the binding capacity of bovine serum albumin (BSA), soybean trypsin inhibitor and l-glutamic acid to a CIM® (DEAE) weak anion-exchange disk monolithic column. The binding capacity was determined experimentally under dynamic conditions using frontal analysis. The effect on the dynamic binding capacity of dimers present in the BSA solution has been evaluated and a closed-loop frontal analysis was used to determine the equilibrium binding capacities. The binding capacity for both BSA and soybean trypsin inhibitor increased with increasing temperature. In the case of l-glutamic acid, an increase in the binding capacity was observed with temperature up to 20 °C. A further increase in temperature caused a decrease of the dynamic binding capacity.

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J. Subotič, K. Koruza, B. Gabor, M. Peterka, M. Barut, J. Kos, J. Brzin

Affinity Chromatography, Dr. Sameh Magdeldin (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0325-7, InTech

Proteolytic enzymes (also known as proteases, proteinases or peptidases) offer a wide range of applications. They are routinely used in detergent, leather, food and pharmaceutical industries, as well as in medical and basic research. Therefore, effective isolation procedures are of great importance. The chapter describes the use of recently discovered protease inhibitors from basidiomycetes as affinity chromatography ligands for isolating proteases. Affinity columns with serine and cysteine protease inhibitors immobilized to the natural polymer Sepharose have been prepared, the chromatography procedure optimized and used for isolating proteases from various bacterial, plant and animal sources. The cysteine protease inhibitor macrocypin showed superior characteristics as a ligand, so was selected for immobilization to CIM (Convective Interaction Media) monolithic disks. Different immobilization chemistries and process conditions were optimized to determine the best conditions for high capacity and selectivity. A very effective method for isolating cysteine proteases was developed using affinity chromatography with the fungal cysteine protease inhibitor macrocypin immobilized to a CIM monolithic disk.

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D. Josić, A. Buchacher

J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 49 (2001) 153–174

Monoliths are useful chromatographic supports, as their structure allows improved mass transport. This results in fast separation. Once the ligand of interest has been immobilized, chromatographic separation can also be accomplished in affinity mode. Ligands with low molecular mass have been shown to be the easiest to immobilize. Nowadays, ligands with low molecular mass are often designed by combinatorial chemical techniques. In addition, many applications have been described where ligands with high molecular mass, such as Proteins A and G, antibodies, lectins and receptors are used.

The immobilization of an enzyme on the monolithic support creates a flow-through reactor. Small proteins, such as carbonic anhydrase, can be directly immobilized on the support. However, in the case of large molecules, the active center of the enzyme is no longer accessible at all or only to a limited degree. An improvement can be achieved by introducing a spacer, which allows maximum enzymatic conversion. Fast conversion of substrates with high molecular mass has been investigated with immobilized trypsin. It was shown that in case of high-molecular-mass substrates, the conversion rate depends very much on the flow-rate. Most applications described have been performed on an analytical or semi-preparative scale. However, the technical problems of up-scaling are close to being definitely solved, enabling enzymatic conversion on a preparative scale in the future.

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E. G. Vlakh, A. Tappe, C. Kasper, T. B. Tennikova

Journal of Chromatography B, 810 (2004) 15–23

Plasminogen activators are the proteases which convert plasminogen into plasmin dissolving, in its turn, the major component of blood clots, fibrin. They are extremely useful in heart attack therapy. Modern and most appropriate way of scaled up production of these valuable proteins is gene engineering. In this case, a separation and a purification of target product become the important steps of the whole process. Recently developed affinity chromatography on short monolithic columns seems to be a very attractive method for these purposes. High speed of a process prevents the protein’s denaturation due to temperature or/and solvents influence. The better mass transfer mechanism (convection rather than diffusion) allows considering only biospecific complexing as time limiting step. Specificity of several synthetic peptides to plasminogen activators have been studied by affinity chromatography on short monolithic columns. Peptide ligands were synthesized by conventional solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). The immobilization procedure was carried out as a one step process at static conditions. The results of quantitative evaluation of such affinity interactions were compared with those established for plasminogen that is the natural affinity counterpart to both proteases. Additionally, some of investigated peptides were synthesized directly on GMA–EDMA disks and their affinity properties were compared with those established for the case of immobilized ligands. The possibility of using of synthetic peptidyl ligands for plasminogen activators isolation from native cell supernatant and model protein mixtures has been demonstrated.

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K. Pflegerl, A. Podgornik, E. Berger, A. Jungbauer

J. Comb. Chem. 2002, 4, 33-37

Solid-phase peptide synthesis was performed on glycidyle methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate monoliths using Fmoc chemistry. The native epoxy groups were amino-functionalized by reaction with ethylenediamine or ammonia ions. A peptide directed against human blood coagulation factor VIII was synthesized as a model peptide. Amino acid analysis revealed the correct amino acid ratio as present in the sequence. The ligand density of 5 μmol/mL was equal to that achieved with conventional peptide immobilization via epoxy groups. These supports were directly used as peptide affinity chromatography matrixes. The functionality of the CIM monolithic supports was proven by affinity chromatography of factor VIII. The ammonia-functionalized support performed with low hydrophobicity and did not show unspecific adsorption of proteins.

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E. Vlakh, A. Novikov, G. Vlasov, T. Tennikova

Journal of Peptide Science, 10: 719–730 (2004)

Monoliths based on a copolymer of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) can be used directly as sorbents for affinity chromatography after solid phase peptide synthesis. The quality of the synthesized products, the amount of grown peptides on a support and the reproducibility of the process must be considered. A determination of the quantity of the introducing β-Ala (and, consequently, the total amount of synthesized peptide) was carried out. Three peptides complementary to recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) have been synthesized using Fmoc-chemistry on GMA-EDMA disks. The peptidyl ligands were analysed by amino acid analysis, ES-MS and HPLC methods.

The affinity binding parameters were obtained from frontal elution data. The results were compared with those established for GMA-EDMA affinity sorbents formed by the immobilization of the same but separately synthesized and purified ligands. The immobilization on GMA-EDMA disks was realized using a one-step reaction between the amino groups of the synthetic ligand and the original epoxy groups of monolithic material. The affinity constants found for two kinds of sorbent did not vary significantly. Finally, the directly obtained affinity sorbents were tested for t-PA separation from a cellular supernatant.

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D. Josić, H. Schwinn, A. Štrancar, A. Podgornik, M. Barut, Y. P. Lim, M. Vodopivec

Journal of Chromatography A, 803 (1998) 61–71

Different ligands with high molecular masses are immobilized on compact, porous separation units and used for affinity chromatography. In subsequent experiments different enzymes are immobilized and used for converting substrates with low and high molecular masses. Disk or tube with immobilized concanavalin A (ConA) are used as model systems for lectin affinity chromatography. The enzyme glucose oxidase is used as a standard protein to test the ConA units. Subsequently glycoproteins from plasma membranes of rat liver are separated, using units with immobilized ConA. The enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV, which is used as a model protein in the experiments, is enriched about 40-fold in a single step, with a yield of over 90%. The results are only slightly better than those obtained with ConA when it is immobilized on bulk supports. The important improvement lies in the reduction of separation time to only 1 h. Experiments concerning the isolation of monoclonal antibodies against clotting factor VIII (FVIII) are carried out on disks, combining anion-exchange chromatography and protein A affinity chromatography as a model for multidimensional chromatography. Both IgG (bound to the protein A disk) and accompanying proteins (bound to the anion-exchange disk) from mouse ascites fluid are retarded and eluted separately. With the immobilized enzymes invertase and glucose oxidase (GOX) the corresponding substrates with low molecular masses, saccharose and glucose, are converted. It is shown that the amount of immobilized enzyme and the concentration of the substrate are responsible for the extent of the conversion, whereas the flow-rates used in the experiments have no effect at all. The influence of immobilization chemistry was investigated with GOX. Indirect immobilization with ConA as spacer proved to be the best alternative. With trypsin, immobilized on a disk, substrates with high molecular masses are digested in flow-through. For optimal digestion the proteins have to be denatured in the buffer for sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrlyamide gel electrophoresis prior to application. In contrast to the conversion of substrates with low molecular masses, flow-rates play an important part in conversion of substrates with high molecular masses. With lower flow-rates a higher degree of digestion is achieved.

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I. Vovk, B. Simonovska, M. Benčina

Journal of Chromatography A, 1065 (2005) 121-128

One of the main forms of tomato pectin methylesterase (PME; EC 3.1.1.11) that is applicable to the food industry was isolated from fresh tomato fruit. The extraction of the PME isoenzymes involved washing the fresh tomato flesh with water in order to remove sugars and than solubilizing the enzymes with a diluted HCl solution at pH 1.6. The extract was then neutralized to pH 7.4 using buffer solution. After filtration, the solution was directly fractioned using Convective Interaction Media (CIM®) short monolithic disk column bearing sulfonyl (SO3) groups and using a linear gradient from 0 to 700 mM NaCl. The injection volume was 3 ml and the diameter of the column was 12 mm and length 3 mm. The isolated fractions were monitored for protein content and PME activity. The fraction with the targeted enzyme, which showed NaCl independent activity, was further purified and concentrated by ultrafiltration and finally purified by a second semi-preparative cation-exchange chromatography step using a CIM carboxymethyl (CM) disk monolithic column consisting of two disks and applying a step gradient. From 1 kg of fresh tomato fruits, 7.5 mg of purified PME with molecular mass estimated to be 26 000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE) was obtained. A fraction with mixed PME and polygalacturonase activity was also obtained. Compared to the published procedures for the isolation and purification of PME from plant materials, this new procedure is much faster and more efficient. The potential application of CIM disk short monolithic columns in the analysis and semi-preparative extraction and isolation of the PME isoenzyme is presented.

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I. Vovk, B. Simonovska

Journal of Chromatography A, 1144 (2007) 90-96(2007) 90-96

An improved cation-exchange chromatographic procedure on Convective Interaction Media (CIM, BIA Separations, Ljubljana, Slovenia) short monolithic methacrylate disk columns was used for the isolation of salt-independent pectin methylesterase (PME; EC 3.1.1.11) isoform and endo-polygalacturonase PG1 (PG, EC 3.2.1.15) from ripe tomato fruit extract after studying the chromatographic conditions including type of disk, binding buffer, pH, eluent composition and different gradients. Between 10 and 20 μg of proteins gave reliable chromatograms. Both carboxymethyl (CM) and sulfonyl (SO3) disks were equally suitable for the fractionation of tomato extract using the new gradient, but only CM disk was appropriate for further purification of the PME and PG fractions, and provided fast and sharp separation of proteins. The isolation of pure PG1 could be achieved only by addition of 20% of acetonitrile to the mobile phase. About 200 μg of proteins were loaded at one chromatographic run at the fractionation and purification. Determination of the molecular weights of the separated proteins showed that dimer of salt-independent PME isoform was formed in concentrated solutions of the enzyme but dissociated upon dilution of the solution. From 6 kg of fresh tomato flesh, 28 mg of purified salt-independent PME, 12.5 mg of purified and active PG1 and 4 mg of PG2 fraction contaminated with salt-dependent PME isoform were obtained by means of semi-preparative chromatography on CIM disks.

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K. Isobe, Y. Kawakami

Journal of Chromatography A, 1065 (2005) 129-134

Chromatography conditions for two types of convection interaction media (CIM) tube monolithic column, DEAE-8 and C4-8, were investigated using three enzymes from different microorganisms. The enzymes were adsorbed on a CIM DEAE-8 tube column under the same conditions as conventional DEAE columns. The CIM C4-8 tube column required a high concentration of ammonium sulfate compared to the conventional C4 column for adsorbing the enzymes. The separation of enzymes on the CIM tube column chromatography was not affected at flow rates between 0.15 and 1.25 volumes of the column per min. Both columns were successfully applied to the purification of enzymes from crude enzyme solution. Thus, both CIM tube monolithic columns proved useful in greatly reducing the purification time, and could be used at any stage of enzyme purification.

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H. Podgornik, A. Podgornik, A. Perdih

Analytical Biochemistry 272, 43–47 (1999)

The HPLC separation of lignin peroxidase isoenzymes using Convective Interaction Media disks containing quaternary amine and diethylaminoethyl ion-exchange active groups is proposed. In contrast to standard HPLC procedures the separation can be performed within a few minutes without considerably affecting the separation resolution. The method is reproducible and gives a linear response of integrated peak area to protein concentration for all measured isoenzymes. The separation resolution is retained unchanged by applying crude culture filtrate instead of a sample previously frozen and dialyzed. The optimized method might therefore be used for on-line monitoring of lignin peroxidase isoenzyme composition during fermentation. On the other hand, the proposed method is comparable in time to the original method of lignin peroxidase activity measurement (proposed by Tien and Kirk), providing additionally the isoenzyme composition.

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H. Podgornik, A. Podgornik

Journal of Chromatography B, 799 (2004) 343–347

Different chromatographic methods including chromatofocusing are used for separation of manganese peroxidase (MnP) isoforms and their isolation from the fungal growth medium. We tested strong anion exchange methacrylate based monolithic columns as a stationary phase for fast separation of MnP’s. Sodium acetate buffers of two different pH values (6 and 4) were used for formation of reproducible pH gradient. The entire cycle, involving analysis and column regeneration, was completed in 3 min. Use of pH gradient showed better MnP isoform separation comparing to the salt gradient, while application of combined pH–salt gradient, resulted in further improvement.

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I.Vovk, B. Simonovska

Journal of Chromatography B, 849 (2007) 337-343

The most abundant isoforms of tomato pectin methylesterase (PME; EC 3.1.1.11; Mr 26 kDa), polygalacturonase (PG; EC 3.2.1.15; PG1 with Mr 82 kDa) and a basic protein with Mr 42 kDa and unknown function were isolated from fresh tomato fruit by a fast chromatographic procedure on a Convective Interaction Media (CIM®) short monolithic disk column bearing carboxymethyl (CM) groups. The extraction of the targeted enzymes with 1.2 M NaCl solution was followed by precipitation with ammonium sulfate at 60% of saturation, solubilisation of the pellet in 0.5 M NaCl and fractionation using a linear gradient from 0 to 700 mM NaCl. Among six fractions five had PME activity and four had PG activity, while one fraction containing a pure protein with Mr 42 kDa with neither of these activities. Two concentrated fractions, one with PG and one with PME were further purified. A linear gradient from 0 to 500 mM NaCl with 20% CH3CN in the mobile phase was used for the PG fraction and two CM disks and a linear gradient from 0 to 200 mM NaCl were used for the PME fraction as a greater capacity was necessary in this case. From 4 kg of fresh tomato flesh we obtained 22 mg of purified PME, 1.8 mg of purified, active PG1, 13.5 mg of additional basic protein and a fraction with PG2 contaminated by a PME isoform. Carboxymethyl CIM disk short monolithic columns are convenient for semi-preparative and analytical work with tomato fruit pectolytic enzymes.

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H. G. Schwelberger, J. Feurle, F. Ahrens

Journal of Neural Transmission 120 (2013) 983-986

Diamine oxidase (DAO) was purified to homogeneity from human seminal plasma by consecutive chromatographic fractionation on heparin-sepharose, phenyl-sepharose, CIM-QA, and Superdex 200. Human seminal plasma DAO behaves electrophoretically similar to DAO proteins from other human tissues and has very similar enzymatic properties with histamine and aliphatic diamines being the preferred substrates as well as significant conversion of polyamines. The cellular source and functional importance of DAO in human semen remain to be determined.

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