The purpose of this book is to provide you with a guide to developing monoclonal antibody purification procedures taht meet the requirements of both research and commercial applications. It is based on successful purifications developed for over 250 monoclonal-based products, addressing a wide range of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. it is supported by nearly 1000 citations from the scientific literature and enriched by the insights of skilled practitioners from throught the industry. It incorporates over 100 figures and tables to illustrate key concepts.
Sebastijan Peljhan, Tina Jakop, Dunja Šček, Vid Skvarča, Blaž Goričar, Romina Žabar, Nina Mencin. Electrophoresis 2017 July 20
The plasma-derived IgG used either for diagnostic purpose or intravenous application (in form of IVIG) in various medical therapies is certainly gaining more and more attention on annual basis. Different manufacturing processes are used to isolate immunoglobulins from human plasma. However, a quest for alternative paths in IgG isolation not only requires development of the most efficient isolation process, but also a rapid and reliable analytics to track the purification. Fast and reliable fingerprint based method for characterization of IgG prepared from Cohn I+II+III paste is presented in this paper. The fingerprint method bases on partial separation of proteins in linear gradient on CIMacTM quaternary amine, strong anion exchange group (QA) 0.1 mL column. Partial separation of proteins does not allow simple quantitative analysis of the samples during the IgG isolation from Cohn I+II+III fraction paste, but very accurate qualitative information about the composition of the sample can be obtained in less than 5 min. From the differences in the chromatograms of various samples, the ratio between IgG and impurities in each sample can be easily assessed. The method is suitable for input material control, in-line monitoring of the downstream processing, final control of the products, as well as in stability studies and enables taking fast and accurate decisions during fractionation process.
Marina Naldi, Urh Černigoj, Ales Štrancar, Manuela Bartolini
Reducing experimental variability, limiting contamination and increasing automation are essential goals in the development of reliable analytical platforms for mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. In this work novel trypsin-based monolithic immobilized enzyme reactors (tryp-IMERs), obtained by covalent immobilization on convective interaction media (CIMac™) analytical columns (5 mm×5.2 mm I.D.), were developed. Notwithstanding the small dimensions, column format allowed the insertion in common high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) systems, thus avoiding the use of expensive micro- or nano-platforms. Monolith pore diameter and surface chemistry were optimized to achieve high digestion efficiency even with high molecular weight proteins and to avoid protein/peptide adsorption, peak broadening and sample loss. A full characterization of the tryp-IMERs was undertaken to select the best protocol for preparation and type of trypsin. Optimization of the operational and storage conditions was carried out by an off-line approach. On-line studies were performed by setting a multidimensional analytical platform, which included the tryp-IMER, a trapping column, an analytical C4 column and a high resolution hybrid mass spectrometer (ESI-Q-TOF). In the optimized conditions rapid protein digestion (90 ± 9 s), high protein coverage (≥60%) and high score values were achieved for five selected sample proteins (cytochrome c, myoglobin and albumins from different sources) differing in molecular size, isoelectric point and accessibility to cleavage sites as well as for a protein mixture of 200 ng. The best performing tryp-IMERs showed high sensitivity down to the pmole level. The platform also resulted suitable for the analysis of high-molecular weight proteins such as a pool of human immunoglobulins G (hIgG) and for the high molecular weight fraction of human plasma proteins, which were digested in less than two minutes to an extent similar to that achieved by overnight incubation in a classical in solution protocol. Finally, underestimated key procedural issues were also highlighted during the study. Such aspects are of general interest both for tryp-IMER users and tryp-IMER developers.
U. Cernigoj, U. Vidic, B. Nemec, J. Gaspersic, J. Vidic,N. L. Krajnc, A. Strancar, A. Podgornik. Journal of Chromatography A, 1464 (2016) 72–78
We investigated effect of immobilization procedure and monolith structure on chromatographic performance of methacrylate monoliths bearing affinity ligands. Monoliths of different pore size and variousaffinity ligands were prepared and characterized using physical and chromatographic methods. When testing protein A monoliths with different protein A ligand densities, a significant non linear effect ofligand density on dynamic binding capacity (DBC) for IgG was obtained and accurately described by Langmuir isotherm curve enabling estimation of protein A utilization as a function of ligand density. Maximal IgG binding capacity was found to be at least 12 mg/mL exceeding theoretical monolayer adsorption value of 7.8 mg/mL assuming hexagonal packing and IgG hydrodynamic diameter of 11 nm. Observed discrepancy was explained by shrinkage of IgG during adsorption on protein A experimentally determined through calculated adsorbed IgG layer thickness of 5.4 nm from pressure drop data. For monoliths with different pore size maximal immobilized densities of protein A as well as IgG dynamic capacitylinearly correlates with monolith surface area indicating constant ligand utilization. Finally, IgGs toward different plasma proteins were immobilized via the hydrazide coupling chemistry to provide oriented immobilization. DBC was found to be flow independent and was increasing with the size of bound protein. Despite DBC was lower than IgG capacity to immobilized protein A, ligand utilization was higher.
Tarasova, I. A., Lobas, A. A., Černigoj, U., Solovyeva, E. M., Mahlberg, B., Ivanov, M. V., Panić-Janković, T., Nagy, Z., Pridatchenko, M. L., Pungor, A., Nemec, B., Vidič, U., Gašperšič, J., Krajnc, N. L., Vidič, J., Gorshkov, M. V. and Mitulović, G. ELECTROPHORESIS. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1002/elps.201500489.
Affinity depletion of abundant proteins such as human serum albumin (HSA) is an important stage in routine sample preparation prior to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis of biological samples with high range of concentrations. Due to the charge competition effects in electrospray ion source that results in discrimination of the low-abundance species, as well as limited dynamic range of MS/MS, restricted typically by three orders of magnitude, the identification of low-abundance proteins becomes a challenge unless the sample is depleted from high concentration compounds. This dictates a need for developing efficient separation technologies allowing fast and automated protein depletion. In this study we performed evaluation of a novel immunoaffinity-based CIMac depletion column with specificity to HSA (CIMac-αHSA). Because of the convective flow-through channels, the polymethacrylate CIMac monoliths afford flow rate-independent binding capacity and resolution that results in relatively short analysis time compared with traditional chromatographic supports. Seppro IgY14 depletion kit was used as a benchmark to control the results of depletion. Bottom-up proteomic approach followed by label-free quantitation using normalized spectral indexes were employed for protein quantification in G1/G2 and Cleavage/Blastocyst IVF culture media widely utilized in clinics for embryo growth in vitro. The results revealed approximately equal HSA level of 100% ± 25% in albumin-enriched fractions relative to the non-depleted samples for both CIMac-αHSA column and Seppro kit. In the albumin-free fractions concentrated 5.5-fold by volume, serum albumin was identified at the levels of 5 to 30% and 20 to 30% for the CIMac-αHSA and Seppro IgY14 spin columns, respectively.
Karla Mayolo-Deloisa, Jose Gonzalez-Valdez, and Marco Rito-Palomares
Biotechnol. Prog., 2016, Vol. 00, No. 00
Protein hydrophobicity can be modified after a PEGylation process. However, hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) has been used to separate PEGylation reaction products less frequently than other techniques. In this context, chromatographic monoliths represent a good alternative to continue exploring the separation of PEGylated proteins with HIC. In this work, the separation of PEGylated proteins using C4 A monolith as well as Toyopearl Butyl 650C and Butyl Sepharose was analyzed. Three proteins were used as models: RNase A, b-lactoglobulin, and lysozyme. All proteins were PEGylated in the Nterminal amino groups with 20 kDa methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) propionaldehyde. The concentration of ammonium sulfate (1 M) used was the same for all stationary phases. The results obtained demonstrated that the C4 A monolith could better resolve all protein PEGylation reaction mixtures, since the peaks of mono- and di-PEGylated proteins can be clearly distinguished in the chromatographic profiles. On the contrary, while using Butyl Sepharose media only the PEGylation reaction mixtures of RNase A could be partially separated at 35 and 45 CVs. PEGylated proteins of b-lactoglobulin and lysozyme could not be resolved when Toyopearl Butyl 650C and Butyl Sepharose were used. It is then clear that monoliths are an excellent choice to explore the purification process of PEGylated proteins exploiting the advantages of HIC.
M. Naldi, M. Baldassarre, M. Domenicali, F. A. Giannone, M. Bossic, J. Montomoli,T. D. Sandahl, E. Glavind, H. Vilstrup, P. Caraceni, C. Bertucci
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Volume 122 (2016) 141-147
Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant plasma protein, endowed with several biological properties unrelated to its oncotic power, such as antioxidant and free-radicals scavenging activities, binding and transport of many endogenous and exogenous substances, and regulation of endothelial function and inflammatory response. These non-oncotic activities are closely connected to the peculiarly dynamic structure of the albumin molecule. HSA undergoes spontaneous structural modifications, mainly by reaction with oxidants and saccharides; however, patients with cirrhosis show extensive post-transcriptional changes at several molecular sites of HSA, the degree of which parallels the severity of the disease. The present work reports the development and application of an innovative LC–MS analytical method for a rapid and reproducible determination of the relative abundance of HSA isoforms in plasma samples from alcoholic hepatitis (AH) patients. A condition of severe oxidative stress, similar to that observed in AH patients, is associated with profound changes in circulating HSA microheterogeneity. More interestingly, the high resolution provided by the analytical platform allowed the monitoring of novel oxidative products of HSA never reported before.
L. Hernandez, D. Stewart, L. Zumalacarregui, D. Amaro
Chinese Journal of Chromatography A, 1000-8713 (2015) 642-646
Affinity and ion exchange conventional chromatography have been used to capture erythropoietin (EPO) from mammalian cell culture supernatant. Currently, chromatographic adsorbent perfusion is available, however a limited number of applications have been found in the literature. In this work, three anion exchange chromatographic supports (gel, membrane and monolithic) were evaluated in the capture step of the recombinant erythropoietin purification process. The influences of load and flow rate on each support performance were analyzed. Also the purity of the EPO molecules was determined. A productivity analysis, as a decision tool for larger scale implementation, was done. As a conclusion, the evaluated supports are technically suitable to capture EPO with adequate recovery and good purity. However, the monolithic column admits high operating velocity, showing the highest adsorption capacity and productivity.
P. Leblebici, M. E. Leblebici, F. Ferreira-da-Silva, A. E.Rodrigues, L. S. Pais
Journal of Chromatography B, 962 (2014) 89-93
Monolithic columns have attracted significant attention for the purification of large biomolecules. In the present study, a step gradient elution method was evaluated for the separation of human immunoglobulinG (hIgG) into its subclasses on CIM (convective interaction media) r-protein A (recombinant protein A)monolithic column. hIgG was loaded onto the column and bound protein was eluted with a pH gra-dient. The subclass content of the eluted fractions was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbentassay (ELISA). Results showed that separation of IgG3 from the other three subclasses can be success-fully achieved with high selectivity (100%) and throughput on monolithic media. It was also revealedthat enriched fractions of IgG1 and IgG2 could be obtained from purified hIgG in a 28 min long chro-matographic run. Three fractions with high IgG1 content (89.1%, 94.3% and 88.8%) were recovered. Furthermore, IgG2 was enriched to 64% successfully. A rapid step gradient elution scheme without any additives in buffers was proven to obtain enriched preparations of the two important subclasses with high throughput. The separation time can be reduced even more by increasing the flow rate without anyloss in selectivity, which will be beneficial in industrial scale applications.
M. Pucic, A. Knezevic, J. Vidic, B. Adamczyk, M. Novokmet, O. Polasek, O. Gornik, S. Supraha-Goreta, M. R. Wormald, I. Redzic, H. Campbell, A. Wright, N. D. Hastie, J. F. Wilson, I. Rudan, M. Wuhrer, P. M. Rudd, Dj. Josic, and G. Lauc
Mol Cell Proteomics. Oct 2011; published online Jun 8, 2011
All immunoglobulin G molecules carry N-glycans, which modulate their biological activity. Changes in N-glycosylation of IgG associate with various diseases and affect the activity of therapeutic antibodies and intravenous immunoglobulins. We have developed a novel 96-well protein G monolithic plate and used it to rapidly isolate IgG from plasma of 2298 individuals from three isolated human populations. N-glycans were released by PNGase F, labeled with 2-aminobenzamide and analyzed by hydrophilic interaction chromatography with fluorescence detection. The majority of the structural features of the IgG glycome were consistent with previous studies, but sialylation was somewhat higher than reported previously.
Sialylation was particularly prominent in core fucosylated glycans containing two galactose residues and bisecting GlcNAc where median sialylation level was nearly 80%. Very high variability between individuals was observed, approximately three times higher than in the total plasma glycome. For example, neutral IgG glycans without core fucose varied between 1.3 and 19%, a difference that significantly affects the effector functions of natural antibodies, predisposing or protecting individuals from particular diseases. Heritability of IgG glycans was generally between 30 and 50%. The individual's age was associated with a significant decrease in galactose and increase of bisecting GlcNAc, whereas other functional elements of IgG glycosylation did not change much with age. Gender was not an important predictor for any IgG glycan. An important observation is that competition between glycosyltransferases, which occurs in vitro, did not appear to be relevant in vivo, indicating that the final glycan structures are not a simple result of competing enzymatic activities, but a carefully regulated outcome designed to meet the prevailing physiological needs.
When monoclonal antibodies were first beginning to be commercialized, expression levels over 100 mg/L were considered outstanding, and cell culture was viewed as the bottleneck in manufacturing productivity. Antibody expression levels now commonly exceed 1 g/L and reports of 10 and 15 g/L have been recently announced. Downstream processing is now considered the bottleneck.
In one sense, the bottleneck is artificial. Cell culture production takes about two weeks (not counting preparation of seed stock) and purification takes about a week. In another sense, the bottleneck is real, and a genuine concern. Process time for the protein A capture step from 20,000 L of cell culture supernatant (CCS) commonly requires 72-96 hours. This represents multiple cycles. The long hold time for IgG produced in the early cycles increases the risk of degradation by proteolysis, deamidation, etc. It also increases the risk of contamination.
T. Čerk Petrič, P. Brne, B. Gabor, L. Govednik, M. Barut, A. Štrancar, L. Zupančič Kralj
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 43 (2007) 243–249
In order to enable the detection of low abundance proteins from human plasma, it is necessary to remove high abundance proteins. Among them, human serum albumin and immunoglobulin G represent more than 75% of all such proteins. In this paper, the characterization of short monolithic columns was performed followed by the optimization of a multidimensional approach, known as conjoint liquid chromatography, to deplete human serum albumin and immunoglobulin G from a human plasma sample. Two different chromatographic modes were used: ion-exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography. A monolithic stationary phase (convective interaction media disk) bearing strong anion-exchange groups and another immobilized with protein G were placed in series into one housing. The optimal binding conditions were found that removed a majority of human serum albumin and immunoglobulin G from the human plasma sample. This method was compared to the depletion using a combination of pseudo-affinity and affinity columns. The results of the human serum albumin and immunoglobulin G depletion were confirmed by 2D electrophoresis. It has been shown that anion-exchange and affinity chromatography using convective interaction media monolithic columns can represent an efficient complementary technique for human serum albumin and immunoglobulin G removal from human plasma.
E. S. Sinitsyna, J. G. Walter, E. G. Vlakh, F. Stahl, C. Kasper, T. B. Tennikova
Talanta 93 (2012) 139-146
Macroporous monoliths with different surface functionalization (reactive groups) were utilized as platforms for DNA analysis in microarray format. The slides based on a copolymer glycidyl methacrylate-co- ethylene dimethacrylate (GMA-EDMA) have been chosen as well known and thoroughly studied standard. In particular, this material has been used at optimization of DNA microanalytical procedure.
The concentration and pH of spotting solution, immobilization temperature and time, blocking agent and coupling reaction duration were selected as varied parameters. The efficiency of analysis performed on 3-D monolithic platforms was compared to that established for commercially available glass slides. As a practical example, a diagnostic test for detection of CFTR gene mutation was carried out. Additionally, the part of presented work was devoted to preparation of aptamer-based test-system that allowed successful and highly sensitive detection both of DNA and protein.
M. M. St. Amand, B. A. Ogunnaike, A.S. Robinson
Published online in Wiley Online Library, 2013
One major challenge currently facing the biopharmaceutical industry is to understand how MAb microheterogeneity affects therapeutic efficacy, potency, immunogenicity, and clearance. MAb micro-heterogeneity can result from post-translational modifications such as sialylation, galactosylation, C-terminal lysine cleavage, glycine amidation, and tryptophan oxidation, each of which can generate MAb charge variants; such heterogeneity can affect pharmacokinetics (PK) considerably. Implementation of appropriate on-line quality control strategies may help to regulate bioprocesses, thus enabling more homogenous material with desired posttranslational modifications and PK behavior. However, one major restriction to implementation of quality control strategies is the availability of techniques for obtaining on-line or at line measurements of these attributes. In this work, we describe the development of an at-line assay to separate MAb charge variants in near real-time, which could ultimately be used to implement on-line quality control strategies for MAb production. The assay consists of a 2DHPLC method with sequential in-line Protein A and WCX-10 HPLC column steps. To perform the 2D-HPLC assay at-line, the two columns steps were integrated into a single method using
a novel system configuration that allowed parallel flow over column 1 or column 2 or sequential flow from column 1 to column 2. A bioreactor system was also developed such that media samples could be removed automatically from bioreactor vessels during production and delivered
to the 2D-HPLC for analysis. With this at-line HPLC assay, we have demonstrated that MAb microheterogeneity occurs throughout the cell cycle whether the host cell line is grown under different or the same nominal culture conditions.
L. G. Berruex, R. Freitag, T. B. Tennikova
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 24 (2000) 95–104
A novel biochromatographic principle is introduced taking the quantitative analysis of affinity interactions between antibodies and immobilized group specific ligands (protein A, G, and L) as example. The name high performance monolith affinity chromatography (HPMAC) is proposed for this technique. HPMAC uses rigid, macroporous monoliths, so-called convective interaction media (CIM™)-disks, as stationary phase. An optimized procedure is described for the covalent immobilization of the group specific affinity ligands to such disks. The binding of polyclonal bovine IgG and a recombinant human antibody (type IgG1-κ) to all affinity disks is discussed. An essential feature of HPMAC is its compatibility to unusually high mobile phase flow rates (>4 ml/min). Chromatographic experiments are thus completed within seconds without significant loss in binding capacity and retentive power. This makes HPMAC a promising tool for applications in fast process monitoring or screening. As an example for the former, the direct quantitative isolation of recombinant antibodies from serum-free culture supernatant is demonstrated.
E. Vlakh, N. Ostryanina, A. Jungbauer, T. Tennikova
Journal of Biotechnology 107 (2004) 275–284
Present report demonstrates the examples of practical application of sorbents obtained via direct solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) on GMA-EDMA monoliths (CIM® Disks, BIA Separations, d.o.o., Ljubljana, Slovenia). Several peptidyl complementary to recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) ligands have been synthesized using Fmoc-chemistry. This approach affords to get directly sorbents for affinity chromatography avoiding a cleavage of synthesized peptides from a carrier following by their isolation, analysis and purification. The affinity binding parameters were found from experimental frontal analysis data. The results have been compared with those established for CIM® affinity sorbents obtained by immobilization of the same but preliminarily synthesized on convenient resin, cleaved and purified ligands on the disks using one step reaction with epoxy groups of monolithic material. It has been shown that the affinity constants of these two kinds of sorbent did not vary significantly. Directly obtained affinity sorbents have been used for fast and efficient on-line analysis as well as semi-preparative isolation of recombinant t-PA from crude cellular supernatant.
R. Hahn, E. Berger, K. Pflegerl, A. Jungbauer
Anal. Chem. 2003, 75, 543-548
When small ligands are immobilized onto a porous chromatography medium, only a limited number of binding sites contributes to the interaction with the target molecule. The main part of the ligand molecules is distributed on sites that are not accessible for the target protein due to steric hindrance. To direct the ligand into a well-accessible position, the ligand was conjugated to a large molecule that acted as a placeholder during the immobilization step. Then the placeholder molecule was cleaved off and washed out. Two linear peptides with affinity for lysozyme and human blood coagulation factor VIII, respectively, were studied as model systems. The protected peptide ligand was covalently linked to a 20-kDa poly(ethylene glycol) molecule containing an acid-labile linker. After selective deprotection of the peptide and purification, immobilization of this conjugate on a preactivated chromatography matrix was performed alternatively through the free N-terminus, the ε-amino group of lysine, or the sulfohydryl group of cysteine. After the immobilization reaction, the spacer molecule and remaining protecting groups were cleaved off and the gels were tested by affinity chromatography. This novel immobilization technique substantially increased the binding capacity and the ligand utilization for the target protein, and site-specific immobilization could be demonstrated.
E. G. Vlakh, A. Tappe, C. Kasper, T. B. Tennikova
Journal of Chromatography B, 810 (2004) 15–23
Plasminogen activators are the proteases which convert plasminogen into plasmin dissolving, in its turn, the major component of blood clots, fibrin. They are extremely useful in heart attack therapy. Modern and most appropriate way of scaled up production of these valuable proteins is gene engineering. In this case, a separation and a purification of target product become the important steps of the whole process. Recently developed affinity chromatography on short monolithic columns seems to be a very attractive method for these purposes. High speed of a process prevents the protein’s denaturation due to temperature or/and solvents influence. The better mass transfer mechanism (convection rather than diffusion) allows considering only biospecific complexing as time limiting step. Specificity of several synthetic peptides to plasminogen activators have been studied by affinity chromatography on short monolithic columns. Peptide ligands were synthesized by conventional solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). The immobilization procedure was carried out as a one step process at static conditions. The results of quantitative evaluation of such affinity interactions were compared with those established for plasminogen that is the natural affinity counterpart to both proteases. Additionally, some of investigated peptides were synthesized directly on GMA–EDMA disks and their affinity properties were compared with those established for the case of immobilized ligands. The possibility of using of synthetic peptidyl ligands for plasminogen activators isolation from native cell supernatant and model protein mixtures has been demonstrated.
J. Krenkova, A. Gargano, N. A. Lacher, J. M. Schneiderheinze, F. Svec
Journal of Chromatography A, 1216 (2009) 6824–6830
Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene methacrylate) monoliths have been prepared in 100 μm i.d. capillaries and their epoxy groups hydrolyzed to obtain poly(2,3-dihydroxypropyl methacrylate-co-ethylene methacrylate) matrix. These polymers were then photografted in a single step with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid and acrylic acid to afford stationary phases for a strong and a weak cation exchange chromatography, respectively. Alternatively, poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate was used for grafting in the first step in order to enhance hydrophilicity of the support followed by photografting with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid or acrylic acid in the second step. These new columns were used for the separation of proteins and peptides. A mixture of ovalbumin, α-chymotrypsinogen, cytochrome c, ribonuclease A and lysozyme was used to assess the chromatographic performance for large molecules while a cytochrome c digest served as a model mixture of peptides. All tested columns featured excellent mass transfer as demonstrated with very steep breakthrough curves. The highest binding capacities were found for columns prepared using the two step functionalization. Columns with sulfonic acid functionalities adsorbed up to 21.5 mg/mL lysozyme while the capacity of the weak cation exchange column functionalized with acrylic acid was 29.2 mg/mL.
Y.-P. Lim, D. Josić, H. Callanan, J. Brown, D. C. Hixson
Journal of Chromatography A, 1065 (2005) 39–43(2005) 39–43
Epoxy-activated monolithic CIM disks seem to be excellent supports for immobilization of protein ligands. The potential use of enzymes, immobilized on monolithic disks for rapid preparative cleavage proteins in solution was investigated. Digestion of complex plasma proteins was demonstrated by using inter-alpha inhibitors with elastase, immobilized on epoxy-activated CIM disks. Recently, a monoclonal antibody against human inter-alpha inhibitor proteins (MAb 69.31) was developed. MAb 69.31 blocks the inhibitory activity of inter-alpha inhibitor proteins to serine proteases. These results suggest that the epitope defined by this antibody is located within or proximal to the active site of the inhibitor molecule. This antibody, immobilized on monolithic disk, was used for very rapid isolation of inter-alpha proteins. The isolated complex protein was used for enzymatic digestion and isolation of cleavage products, especially from inter-alpha inhibitor light chain to elucidate precisely the target sequence for MAb 69.31 by N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Bovine pancreatic elastase immobilized on monolithic disk cleaves inter-alpha inhibitor protein complex into small fragments which are still reactive with MAb 69.31. One of these proteolytic fragments was isolated and partially sequenced. It could be shown that this sequence is located at the beginning of two proteinase inhibitor domains of the inter-alpha inhibitor light chain (bikunin). Elastase immobilized on monolithic disk offers a simple and rapid method for preparative isolation of protease cleavage fragments. The immobilized enzyme is stable and still active after repeated runs. A partial or complete digestion can be achieved by varying the flow rate.
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