Calef Sánchez-Trasviña, Marco Rito-Palomares, and José González-Valdez
Advances in Polymer Technology, Volume 2019, December 12 2019, 10 pages
PEGylated or polyethylene glycol-modified proteins have been used as therapeutic agents in different diseases. However, the major drawback in their procurement is the purification process to separate unreacted proteins and the PEGylated species. Several efforts have been done to separate PEGylation reactions by chromatography using different stationary phases and modified supports. In this context, this study presents the use of chromatographic monoliths modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to separate PEGylated Ribonuclease A (RNase A). To do this, Convective Interaction Media (CIM) Ethylenediamine (EDA) monolithic disks were PEGylated using three PEG molecular weights (1, 10, and 20 kDa). The PEGylated monoliths were used to separate PEGylated RNase A modified, as well, with three PEG molecular weights (5, 20, and 40 kDa) by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Performance results showed that Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) can bind to PEGylated monoliths and the amount of bound BSA increases when ammonium sulfate concentration and flow rate increase. Furthermore, when PEGylated RNase A was loaded into the PEGylated monoliths, PEG-PEG interactions predominated in the separation of the different PEGylated species (i.e., mono and di-PEGylated). It was also observed that the molecular weight of grafted PEG chains to the monolith impacts strongly in the operation resolution. Interestingly, it was possible to separate, for the first time, isomers of 40 kDa PEGylated RNase A by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. This technology, based on PEGylated monoliths, represents a new methodology to efficiently separate proteins and PEGylated proteins. Besides, it could be used to separate other PEGylated molecules of biopharmaceutical or biotechnological interest.
Katarina Marković, Radmila Milačič, Janja Vidmar, Stefan Marković, Katja Uršič, Martina Nikšić Žakeljc, Maja Cemazar, Gregor Sersa, Mojca Unk, Janez Ščančar
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 57, January 2020, Pages 28-39.
Monolithic chromatography using convective interaction media (CIM) disks or columns can be used in the separation step of speciation analysis. When different monolithic disks are placed in one housing, forming conjoint liquid chromatography (CLC) monolithic column, two-dimensional separation is achieved in a single chromatographic run. Here, we assembled low-pressure (maximum 50 bar) CLC monolithic column, which consists of two 0.34 mL shallow CIM monolithic disks and high-pressure CLC column (maximum 150 bar) from 0.1 mL analytical high performance short bed CIMac monolithic disks. The data from analyses showed that both tested CLC monolithic columns gave statistically comparable results, with the low-pressure CLC column exhibiting better resolving power and robustness. Low-pressure CLC column exhibited greater potential than high-pressure CLC column, and can be thus recommended for its intended use in speciation analysis of metal-based biomolecules.
Keywords: low-pressure and high-pressure conjoint liquid chromatography, anion-exchange and affinity monolithic disks, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, Pt-based chemotherapeutics, serum of cancer patients
J. R. Lorsch, A. M. Munoz, J. S. Nanda, V. Rajagopal, P. Yourik, S. E. Walker
RNA Biology (2017), volume 14 (2), pp. 188–196.
Published online 2016 Dec 16.
In vitro studies of translation provide critical mechanistic details, yet purification of large amounts of highly active eukaryotic ribosomes remains a challenge for biochemists and structural biologists. Here, we present an optimized method for preparation of highly active yeast ribosomes that could easily be adapted for purification of ribosomes from other species. The use of a nitrogen mill for cell lysis coupled with chromatographic purification of the ribosomes results in 10-fold-increased yield and less variability compared with the traditional approach, which relies on sedimentation through sucrose cushions. We demonstrate that these ribosomes are equivalent to those made using the traditional method in a host of in vitro assays, and that utilization of this new method will consistently produce high yields of active yeast ribosomes.
KEYWORDS: Eukaryotic translation, in vitro translation, ribosome, ribosome purification, yeast
Thanaporn Liangsupree, Evgen Multia, Jari Metso, Matti Jauhiainen, Patrik Forssén, Torgny Fornstedt, Katariina Öörni, Aleš Podgornik & Marja-Liisa Riekkola
Scientific Reports, volume 9, August 2019
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is considered the major risk factor for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVDs). A novel and rapid method for the isolation of LDL from human plasma was developed utilising affinity chromatography with monolithic stationary supports. The isolation method consisted of two polymeric monolithic disk columns, one immobilized with chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S) and the other with apolipoprotein B-100 monoclonal antibody (anti-apoB-100 mAb). The first disk with C6S was targeted to remove chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles, and their remnants including intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) particles, thus allowing the remaining major lipoprotein species, i.e. LDL, lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) to flow to the anti-apoB-100 disk. The second disk captured LDL particles via the anti-apoB-100 mAb attached on the disk surface in a highly specific manner, permitting the selective LDL isolation. The success of LDL isolation was confirmed by different techniques including quartz crystal microbalance. In addition, the method developed gave comparable results with ultracentrifugation, conventionally used as a standard method. The reliable results achieved together with a short isolation time (less than 30 min) suggest the method to be suitable for clinically relevant LDL functional assays.
The purpose of this book is to provide you with a guide to developing monoclonal antibody purification procedures taht meet the requirements of both research and commercial applications. It is based on successful purifications developed for over 250 monoclonal-based products, addressing a wide range of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. it is supported by nearly 1000 citations from the scientific literature and enriched by the insights of skilled practitioners from throught the industry. It incorporates over 100 figures and tables to illustrate key concepts.
Marina Naldi, Urh Černigoj, Ales Štrancar, Manuela Bartolini
Reducing experimental variability, limiting contamination and increasing automation are essential goals in the development of reliable analytical platforms for mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. In this work novel trypsin-based monolithic immobilized enzyme reactors (tryp-IMERs), obtained by covalent immobilization on convective interaction media (CIMac™) analytical columns (5 mm×5.2 mm I.D.), were developed. Notwithstanding the small dimensions, column format allowed the insertion in common high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) systems, thus avoiding the use of expensive micro- or nano-platforms. Monolith pore diameter and surface chemistry were optimized to achieve high digestion efficiency even with high molecular weight proteins and to avoid protein/peptide adsorption, peak broadening and sample loss. A full characterization of the tryp-IMERs was undertaken to select the best protocol for preparation and type of trypsin. Optimization of the operational and storage conditions was carried out by an off-line approach. On-line studies were performed by setting a multidimensional analytical platform, which included the tryp-IMER, a trapping column, an analytical C4 column and a high resolution hybrid mass spectrometer (ESI-Q-TOF). In the optimized conditions rapid protein digestion (90 ± 9 s), high protein coverage (≥60%) and high score values were achieved for five selected sample proteins (cytochrome c, myoglobin and albumins from different sources) differing in molecular size, isoelectric point and accessibility to cleavage sites as well as for a protein mixture of 200 ng. The best performing tryp-IMERs showed high sensitivity down to the pmole level. The platform also resulted suitable for the analysis of high-molecular weight proteins such as a pool of human immunoglobulins G (hIgG) and for the high molecular weight fraction of human plasma proteins, which were digested in less than two minutes to an extent similar to that achieved by overnight incubation in a classical in solution protocol. Finally, underestimated key procedural issues were also highlighted during the study. Such aspects are of general interest both for tryp-IMER users and tryp-IMER developers.
Sebastijan Peljhan, Tina Jakop, Dunja Šček, Vid Skvarča, Blaž Goričar, Romina Žabar, Nina Mencin. Electrophoresis 2017 July 20
The plasma-derived IgG used either for diagnostic purpose or intravenous application (in form of IVIG) in various medical therapies is certainly gaining more and more attention on annual basis. Different manufacturing processes are used to isolate immunoglobulins from human plasma. However, a quest for alternative paths in IgG isolation not only requires development of the most efficient isolation process, but also a rapid and reliable analytics to track the purification. Fast and reliable fingerprint based method for characterization of IgG prepared from Cohn I+II+III paste is presented in this paper. The fingerprint method bases on partial separation of proteins in linear gradient on CIMacTM quaternary amine, strong anion exchange group (QA) 0.1 mL column. Partial separation of proteins does not allow simple quantitative analysis of the samples during the IgG isolation from Cohn I+II+III fraction paste, but very accurate qualitative information about the composition of the sample can be obtained in less than 5 min. From the differences in the chromatograms of various samples, the ratio between IgG and impurities in each sample can be easily assessed. The method is suitable for input material control, in-line monitoring of the downstream processing, final control of the products, as well as in stability studies and enables taking fast and accurate decisions during fractionation process.
M. Naldi, M. Baldassarre, M. Domenicali, F. A. Giannone, M. Bossic, J. Montomoli,T. D. Sandahl, E. Glavind, H. Vilstrup, P. Caraceni, C. Bertucci
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Volume 122 (2016) 141-147
Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant plasma protein, endowed with several biological properties unrelated to its oncotic power, such as antioxidant and free-radicals scavenging activities, binding and transport of many endogenous and exogenous substances, and regulation of endothelial function and inflammatory response. These non-oncotic activities are closely connected to the peculiarly dynamic structure of the albumin molecule. HSA undergoes spontaneous structural modifications, mainly by reaction with oxidants and saccharides; however, patients with cirrhosis show extensive post-transcriptional changes at several molecular sites of HSA, the degree of which parallels the severity of the disease. The present work reports the development and application of an innovative LC–MS analytical method for a rapid and reproducible determination of the relative abundance of HSA isoforms in plasma samples from alcoholic hepatitis (AH) patients. A condition of severe oxidative stress, similar to that observed in AH patients, is associated with profound changes in circulating HSA microheterogeneity. More interestingly, the high resolution provided by the analytical platform allowed the monitoring of novel oxidative products of HSA never reported before.
Karla Mayolo-Deloisa, Jose Gonzalez-Valdez, and Marco Rito-Palomares
Biotechnol. Prog., 2016, Vol. 00, No. 00
Protein hydrophobicity can be modified after a PEGylation process. However, hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) has been used to separate PEGylation reaction products less frequently than other techniques. In this context, chromatographic monoliths represent a good alternative to continue exploring the separation of PEGylated proteins with HIC. In this work, the separation of PEGylated proteins using C4 A monolith as well as Toyopearl Butyl 650C and Butyl Sepharose was analyzed. Three proteins were used as models: RNase A, b-lactoglobulin, and lysozyme. All proteins were PEGylated in the Nterminal amino groups with 20 kDa methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) propionaldehyde. The concentration of ammonium sulfate (1 M) used was the same for all stationary phases. The results obtained demonstrated that the C4 A monolith could better resolve all protein PEGylation reaction mixtures, since the peaks of mono- and di-PEGylated proteins can be clearly distinguished in the chromatographic profiles. On the contrary, while using Butyl Sepharose media only the PEGylation reaction mixtures of RNase A could be partially separated at 35 and 45 CVs. PEGylated proteins of b-lactoglobulin and lysozyme could not be resolved when Toyopearl Butyl 650C and Butyl Sepharose were used. It is then clear that monoliths are an excellent choice to explore the purification process of PEGylated proteins exploiting the advantages of HIC.
Tarasova, I. A., Lobas, A. A., Černigoj, U., Solovyeva, E. M., Mahlberg, B., Ivanov, M. V., Panić-Janković, T., Nagy, Z., Pridatchenko, M. L., Pungor, A., Nemec, B., Vidič, U., Gašperšič, J., Krajnc, N. L., Vidič, J., Gorshkov, M. V. and Mitulović, G. ELECTROPHORESIS. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1002/elps.201500489.
Affinity depletion of abundant proteins such as human serum albumin (HSA) is an important stage in routine sample preparation prior to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis of biological samples with high range of concentrations. Due to the charge competition effects in electrospray ion source that results in discrimination of the low-abundance species, as well as limited dynamic range of MS/MS, restricted typically by three orders of magnitude, the identification of low-abundance proteins becomes a challenge unless the sample is depleted from high concentration compounds. This dictates a need for developing efficient separation technologies allowing fast and automated protein depletion. In this study we performed evaluation of a novel immunoaffinity-based CIMac depletion column with specificity to HSA (CIMac-αHSA). Because of the convective flow-through channels, the polymethacrylate CIMac monoliths afford flow rate-independent binding capacity and resolution that results in relatively short analysis time compared with traditional chromatographic supports. Seppro IgY14 depletion kit was used as a benchmark to control the results of depletion. Bottom-up proteomic approach followed by label-free quantitation using normalized spectral indexes were employed for protein quantification in G1/G2 and Cleavage/Blastocyst IVF culture media widely utilized in clinics for embryo growth in vitro. The results revealed approximately equal HSA level of 100% ± 25% in albumin-enriched fractions relative to the non-depleted samples for both CIMac-αHSA column and Seppro kit. In the albumin-free fractions concentrated 5.5-fold by volume, serum albumin was identified at the levels of 5 to 30% and 20 to 30% for the CIMac-αHSA and Seppro IgY14 spin columns, respectively.
U. Cernigoj, U. Vidic, B. Nemec, J. Gaspersic, J. Vidic,N. L. Krajnc, A. Strancar, A. Podgornik. Journal of Chromatography A, 1464 (2016) 72–78
We investigated effect of immobilization procedure and monolith structure on chromatographic performance of methacrylate monoliths bearing affinity ligands. Monoliths of different pore size and variousaffinity ligands were prepared and characterized using physical and chromatographic methods. When testing protein A monoliths with different protein A ligand densities, a significant non linear effect ofligand density on dynamic binding capacity (DBC) for IgG was obtained and accurately described by Langmuir isotherm curve enabling estimation of protein A utilization as a function of ligand density. Maximal IgG binding capacity was found to be at least 12 mg/mL exceeding theoretical monolayer adsorption value of 7.8 mg/mL assuming hexagonal packing and IgG hydrodynamic diameter of 11 nm. Observed discrepancy was explained by shrinkage of IgG during adsorption on protein A experimentally determined through calculated adsorbed IgG layer thickness of 5.4 nm from pressure drop data. For monoliths with different pore size maximal immobilized densities of protein A as well as IgG dynamic capacitylinearly correlates with monolith surface area indicating constant ligand utilization. Finally, IgGs toward different plasma proteins were immobilized via the hydrazide coupling chemistry to provide oriented immobilization. DBC was found to be flow independent and was increasing with the size of bound protein. Despite DBC was lower than IgG capacity to immobilized protein A, ligand utilization was higher.
L. Hernandez, D. Stewart, L. Zumalacarregui, D. Amaro
Chinese Journal of Chromatography A, 1000-8713 (2015) 642-646
Affinity and ion exchange conventional chromatography have been used to capture erythropoietin (EPO) from mammalian cell culture supernatant. Currently, chromatographic adsorbent perfusion is available, however a limited number of applications have been found in the literature. In this work, three anion exchange chromatographic supports (gel, membrane and monolithic) were evaluated in the capture step of the recombinant erythropoietin purification process. The influences of load and flow rate on each support performance were analyzed. Also the purity of the EPO molecules was determined. A productivity analysis, as a decision tool for larger scale implementation, was done. As a conclusion, the evaluated supports are technically suitable to capture EPO with adequate recovery and good purity. However, the monolithic column admits high operating velocity, showing the highest adsorption capacity and productivity.
P. Leblebici, M. E. Leblebici, F. Ferreira-da-Silva, A. E.Rodrigues, L. S. Pais
Journal of Chromatography B, 962 (2014) 89-93
Monolithic columns have attracted significant attention for the purification of large biomolecules. In the present study, a step gradient elution method was evaluated for the separation of human immunoglobulinG (hIgG) into its subclasses on CIM (convective interaction media) r-protein A (recombinant protein A)monolithic column. hIgG was loaded onto the column and bound protein was eluted with a pH gra-dient. The subclass content of the eluted fractions was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbentassay (ELISA). Results showed that separation of IgG3 from the other three subclasses can be success-fully achieved with high selectivity (100%) and throughput on monolithic media. It was also revealedthat enriched fractions of IgG1 and IgG2 could be obtained from purified hIgG in a 28 min long chro-matographic run. Three fractions with high IgG1 content (89.1%, 94.3% and 88.8%) were recovered. Furthermore, IgG2 was enriched to 64% successfully. A rapid step gradient elution scheme without any additives in buffers was proven to obtain enriched preparations of the two important subclasses with high throughput. The separation time can be reduced even more by increasing the flow rate without anyloss in selectivity, which will be beneficial in industrial scale applications.
M. M. St. Amand, B. A. Ogunnaike, A.S. Robinson
Published online in Wiley Online Library, 2013
One major challenge currently facing the biopharmaceutical industry is to understand how MAb microheterogeneity affects therapeutic efficacy, potency, immunogenicity, and clearance. MAb micro-heterogeneity can result from post-translational modifications such as sialylation, galactosylation, C-terminal lysine cleavage, glycine amidation, and tryptophan oxidation, each of which can generate MAb charge variants; such heterogeneity can affect pharmacokinetics (PK) considerably. Implementation of appropriate on-line quality control strategies may help to regulate bioprocesses, thus enabling more homogenous material with desired posttranslational modifications and PK behavior. However, one major restriction to implementation of quality control strategies is the availability of techniques for obtaining on-line or at line measurements of these attributes. In this work, we describe the development of an at-line assay to separate MAb charge variants in near real-time, which could ultimately be used to implement on-line quality control strategies for MAb production. The assay consists of a 2DHPLC method with sequential in-line Protein A and WCX-10 HPLC column steps. To perform the 2D-HPLC assay at-line, the two columns steps were integrated into a single method using
a novel system configuration that allowed parallel flow over column 1 or column 2 or sequential flow from column 1 to column 2. A bioreactor system was also developed such that media samples could be removed automatically from bioreactor vessels during production and delivered
to the 2D-HPLC for analysis. With this at-line HPLC assay, we have demonstrated that MAb microheterogeneity occurs throughout the cell cycle whether the host cell line is grown under different or the same nominal culture conditions.
A. Martinčič, M. Cemazar, G. Sersa, V. Kovač, R. Milačič, J. Ščančar
Talanta 116 (2013)141-148
Conjoint liquid chromatography (CLC) on monolithic convective interaction media (CIM) disks coupled on-line to UV and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detectors was used for the first time in speciation analysis of Pt in human serum spiked with Pt-based chemotherapeutics. CIM Protein G and CIM DEAE disks were assembled together in a single housing forming a CLC monolithic column. Such a set-up allows rapid two-dimensional separation by affinity and ion-exchange (IE) modes to be carried out in a single chromatographic run. By applying isocratic elution with Tris–HCl–NaHCO3 buffer (pH 7.4) in the first minute, followed by gradient elution with 1 mol L-1 NH4Cl (pH 7.4) in the next 9 min, immunoglobulins (IgG) were retained by the Protein G disk enabling subsequent separation of unbound Pt from Pt bound to transferrin (Tf) and albumin (HSA) on the CIM DEAE disk. Further elution with acetic acid (AcOH) in the next 3 min allowed separation of Pt associated with IgG. Separated Pt species were quantified by post-column isotope dilution—ICP-MS. Pt recovery on the CLC column was close to 100%. In comparison to commonly applied procedures that involve separation of protein peaks by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) followed by IE separation of metal-based chemotherapeutic fractions bound to serum proteins, the CLC method developed is much faster and simpler. Its sensitivity (LOQs adequate for quantification of all separated Pt species, lower than 2.4 ng Pt mL-1), good selectivity and method repeatability (RSD±3%) enabled investigation of the kinetics of interaction of Pt-based chemotherapeutics with serum proteins and the distribution of Pt species in spiked human serum. Pt species present in spiked serum were bound preferentially to HSA. The proportion of Pt associated with IgG and Tf was lower than 13%. Cisplatin and especially oxaliplatin react rapidly with serum proteins, while carboplatin much less. The method developed may be reliably applied in preclinical and clinical studies of the kinetics of the interaction and distribution of different metallodrugs with proteins in blood serum.
H. G. Schwelberger, J. Feurle, F. Ahrens
Journal of Neural Transmission 120 (2013) 983-986
Diamine oxidase (DAO) was purified to homogeneity from human seminal plasma by consecutive chromatographic fractionation on heparin-sepharose, phenyl-sepharose, CIM-QA, and Superdex 200. Human seminal plasma DAO behaves electrophoretically similar to DAO proteins from other human tissues and has very similar enzymatic properties with histamine and aliphatic diamines being the preferred substrates as well as significant conversion of polyamines. The cellular source and functional importance of DAO in human semen remain to be determined.
O. Zitka, S. Skalickova, S. Krizkova, M. Vlkova, V. Adam, R. Kizek
Chromatographia (2013) 76:611-619
In this study, we optimized method for the isolation and detection of lactoferrin from human saliva using 3 mm short monolithic disc. We optimized the conditions for separation as flow rate 4 mL min-1 and ionic strength of effluent as 2 M·NaCl. We estimated limit of detection of whole method, which was hyphenated to the Bradford’s assay, down to 100 ng mL-1. The purity of the isolated fractions was verified by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and recovery of isolation was found to be 51 % using minimally processed sample of saliva. Further, we tested the optimized method on group of healthy volunteers (n = 7). We were able to distinguish between the healthy subjects and subject suffering from celiac disease, which reported at least 2.5× higher level of lactoferrin in comparison to healthy ones. The results were correlated with standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit with obtained correlation coefficient R2 = 0.8446. Analysis of lactoferrin in saliva by monolithic disc and subsequent offline photometric detection is faster and cheaper method compared to ELISA commercial kit. The total analysis of one sample takes.
D. A. Ribeiro, D. F. Passos, H. C. Ferraz, L. R. Castilho
Journal of Chromatography B, 938 (2013) 111-118
Both recombinant and plasma-derived factor IX concentrates are used in replacement therapies for the treatment of haemophilia B. In the present work, the capture step for a recombinant FIX (rFIX) purification process was investigated. Different strong anion-exchange chromatography media (the resins Q Sepharose® FF and Fractogel® TMAE, the monolith CIM® QA and the membrane adsorber Sartobind® Q) were tested for their rFIX binding capacity under dynamic conditions. In these experiments, crude supernatant from CHO cells was used, thus in the presence of supernatant contaminants and mimicking process conditions. The highest dynamic binding capacity was obtained for the monolith, which was then further investigated. To study pseudoaffinity elution of functional rFIX with Ca2+ ions, a design of experiments to evaluate the effects of pH, NaCl and CaCl2 on yield and purification factor was carried out. The effect of pH was not statistically significant, and a combination of no NaCl and 45 mM CaCl2 yielded a good purification factor combined with a high yield of active rFIX. Under these conditions, activity yield of rFIX was higher than the mass yield, confirming selective elution of functional, γ-carboxylated rFIX. Scaling-up of this process 8 fold resulted in very similar process performance. Monitoring of the undesired activated FIX (FIXa) revealed that the FIXa/FIX ratio (1.94%) was higher in the eluate than in the loaded sample, but was still within an acceptable range. HCP and DNA clearances were high (1256 and 7182 fold, respectively), indicating that the proposed process is adequate for the intended rFIX capture step.
J. A. Martin, P. Parekh, Y. Kim, T. E. Morey, K. Sefah, N. Gravenstein, D. M. Dennis, W. Tan
PLOS ONE, March 2013, Volume 8, Issue 3, e57341
Adverse drug reactions, including severe patient bleeding, may occur following the administration of anticoagulant drugs. Bivalirudin is a synthetic anticoagulant drug sometimes employed as a substitute for heparin, a commonly used anticoagulant that can cause a condition called heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Although bivalrudin has the advantage of not causing HIT, a major concern is lack of an antidote for this drug. In contrast, medical professionals can quickly reverse the effects of heparin using protamine. This report details the selection of an aptamer to bivalirudin that functions as an antidote in buffer. This was accomplished by immobilizing the drug on a monolithic column to partition binding sequences from nonbinding sequences using a low-pressure chromatography system and salt gradient elution. The elution profile of binding sequences was compared to that of a blank column (no drug), and fractions with a chromatographic difference were analyzed via real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and used for further selection. Sequences were identified by 454 sequencing and demonstrated low micromolar dissociation constants through fluorescence anisotropy after only two rounds of selection. One aptamer, JPB5, displayed a dose-dependent reduction of the clotting time in buffer, with a 20 µM aptamer achieving a nearly complete antidote effect. This work is expected to result in a superior safety profile for bivalirudin, resulting in enhanced patient care.
BioProcess International, November 2012, pg. 31-42
Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) remain the largest segment of the biopharmaceutical market, but they are not the only recombinant proteins in development. Remember that the first biopharmaceutical approved for sale was recombinant insulin — a hormone — back in the 1980s. And proteins aren't the only recombinant biologics. The sector has expanded since then to include gene therapies and viral vectors, vaccines, and even cells and tissues. Companies around the world are developing such products for cancer, neurological, infectious disease, metabolic, autoimmune, and cardiovascular disorders, to name just the most prominent. And although MAbs are finally fulfilling their “magic bullet” promise, many other approaches are becoming available to drug developers targeting those markets — and others.
Meanwhile, funding challenges are increasing emphasis on manufacturing and development efficiencies. Even though total funding of the biotechnology industry has rebounded since the 2008 recession — from about US$13 billion for the United States industry in 2008 to about $21 billion in 2010, for example — a growing share of that money is going to the less risky investments. According to Ernst & Young's 2011 Beyond Borders report, that means mature and already-profitable companies are taking a larger portion of the financial pie.
At the same time, the average number of drug approvals per year has decreased: from about three dozen in the United States from 1996 to 2004 to under two dozen for the years since. And even though markets are opening up in China, India, and other countries, the cost of doing business on a global scale makes it no easy task to reach them. So biopharmaceutical companies need to curb the rise of development and manufacturing costs. Single-use technologies are helping with the latter in large part. And platform technologies have helped antibody makers shorten development times by starting out with certain rules of thumb — rather than trying out hundreds of available purification technologies, for example, in many different combinations to find what works best for every new product candidate.
Do nonantibody makers have similar options when it comes to their own process development work? As is so often the case in bioprocessing, the answer to that question is “It depends. ..” on the product class; on the expression system; and on the regulatory history of the company, process, and type of molecule.