Laura M. Fischer, Michael W. Wolff, Udo Reichl, Vaccine 2017 July 17
The continuously increasing demand for potent and safe vaccines and the intensifying economic pressure on health care systems underlines the need for further optimization of vaccine manufacturing. Here, we focus on downstream processing of human influenza vaccines, investigating the purification of serum free cell culture-derived influenza virus (A/PR/8/34 H1N1) using continuous chromatography. Therefore, quaternary amine anion exchange monoliths (CIM QA) were characterized for their capacity to capture virus particles from animal cells cultivated in different media and their ability to separate virions from contaminating host cell proteins and DNA. The continuous chromatography was implemented as simulated moving bed chromatography (SMB) in a three zone open loop configuration with a detached high salt zone for regeneration.
SMBs exploiting 10% and 50% of the monoliths’ dynamic binding capacity, respectively, allowed the depletion of >98% of the DNA and >52% of the total protein. Based on the hemagglutination assay (HA assay), the virus yield was higher at 10% capacity use (89% vs. 45%). Both SMB separations resulted in a ratio of total protein to hemagglutinin antigen (based on single radial diffusion assay, SRID assay) below the required levels for manufacturing of human vaccines (less than 100 mg of protein per virus strain per dose). The level of contaminating DNA was five-times lower for the 10% loading, but still exceeded the required limit for human vaccines. A subsequent Benzonase treatment step, however, reduced the DNA contamination below 10 ng per dose. Coupled to continuous cultivations for virus propagation, the establishment of integrated processes for fully continuous production of vaccines seems to be feasible.
Alicia T Lucero, Sergio A Mercado, Anamaría C Sánchez,Carolina A Contador, Barbara A Andrews and Juan A Asenjo, Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology, (2017)
BACKGROUND: Gene therapy is a potent alternative for long-lasting inhibition of alcohol consumption. This study compares the purification of a recombinant adenoviral vector serotype 5 (rAdV5) for use in gene therapy against alcoholism using two anion-exchange methods.
RESULTS: Two anion-exchange chromatography methods using fast protein liquid chromatography were compared using a packed-bed column (Q-Sepharose™ XL) and two monolithic columns (CIM™ QA-1 and CIM™ DEAE-1). An improved and reproducible separation of recombinant adenovirus type 5 from cell lysate contaminants was achieved using the two strong anion-exchange columns in a two-step gradient chromatography. Higher adenovirus yields were achieved using the CIM QA-1 tube monolithic column at sample volumes of both 1 and 10 mL compared with the Q-Sepharose XL column. At higher flow rates, the CIM QA-1 tube monolithic column achieved better separation of the target fraction. Process recovery was improved from 28% using the Q-Sepharose XL column to 34% with the CIM QA-1 tube monolithic column quantified as vector genome. Analysis by SDS-PAGE demonstrated a purity of 70% for purified adenovirus using the CIM QA-1 tube monolithic column.
CONCLUSION: This study indicated that the use of a CIM QA-1 tube monolithic column is a better alternative than Q-Sepharose XL, and CIM DEAE-1 tube monolithic columns for the primary purification process of rAdV5 carrying the human aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 antisense gene. This purification strategy has been used as a basis to scale-up a GLP process for the production of material at the National Research Council of Canada to be used in preclinical trials of this gene therapy against alcoholism
David Vincent, Petra Kramberger, Rosana Hudej, Aleš Štrancar, Yaohe Wang,Yuhong Zhou, Ajoy Velayudhan
The purification of large viruses remains an important field of research and development. The development of efficient purification trains is limited by limited analytical methods, as well as by the complexity of large viruses, as well as the high variability in starting material from cell culture. Vaccinia virus holds great potential as an oncolytic and immunotherapeutic vaccine against a broad spectrum of cancers. In this work, monolith-based capture and polishing chromatographic steps for vaccinia virus Lister strain has been developed. Virus produced in CV-1 cells was harvested and passed through a 0.8μm pre-filter before loading onto CIEX, AIEX and HIC CIM monoliths. Without the need for nuclease treatment, up to 99% of the total DNA loaded can be removed from the vaccinia feed stream by the CIM OH monolith, which also reduces the total protein concentration in the product pool to LLOQ levels, and achieves infectious virus recoveries of 90%. Binding capacities of greater than 1x109 pfu of vaccinia per mL of matrix were obtained on both CIM SO3 and CIM OH monoliths. Multiple orthogonal analytical methods have been used to develop process knowledge and understanding.
P. Stepperta, D. Burgstallera, M. Klausbergera, E. Bergerb, P.P. Aguilara, T.A. Schneiderb, P. Krambergerc, A. Toverd, K. Nöbauere, E. Razzazi-Fazelie, A. Jungbauer, Journal of Chromatography A, 1455 (2016)
Enveloped virus-like particles (VLPs) are increasingly used as vaccines and immunotherapeutics. Frequently, very time consuming density gradient centrifugation techniques are used for purification ofVLPs. However, the progress towards optimized large-scale VLP production increased the demand for fast, cost efficient and scaleable purification processes. We developed a chromatographic procedure for purification of HIV-1 gag VLPs produced in CHOcells. The clarified and filtered cell culture supernatant was directly processed on an anion-exchange monolith. The majority of host cell impurities passed throughthe column, whereas the VLPs were eluted by a linear or step salt gradient; the major fraction of DNA waseluted prior to VLPs and particles in the range of 100–200nm in diameter could be separated into two fractions. The earlier eluted fraction was enriched with extracellular particles associated to exosomes or microvesicles, whereas the late eluting fractions contained the majority of most pure HIV-1 gag VLPs. DNA content in the exosome-containing fraction could not be reduced by Benzonase treatment which indicated that the DNA was encapsulated. Many exosome markers were identified by proteomic analysisin this fraction. We present a laboratory method that could serve as a basis for rapid downstream processing of enveloped VLPs. Up to 2000 doses, each containing 1×109 particles, could be processed witha 1mL monolith within 47 min. The method compared to density gradient centrifugation has a 220-fold improvement in productivity.
J. Transfiguracion, A. P. Manceur, E. Petiot, C. M. Thompson, A. A. Kamen
The influenza virus continuously undergoes antigenic evolution requiring manufacturing, validation and release of new seasonal vaccine lots to match new circulating strains. Although current production processes are well established for manufacturing seasonal inactivated influenza vaccines, significant limitations have been underlined in the case of pandemic outbreaks. The World Health Organization called for a global pandemic influenza vaccine action plan including the development of new technologies. A rapid and reliable method for the quantification of influenza total particles is crucially needed to support the development, improvement and validation of novel influenza vaccine manufacturing platforms. This work presents the development of an ion exchange-high performance liquid chromatography method for the quantification of influenza virus particles. The method was developed using sucrose cushion purified influenza viruses A and B produced in HEK 293 suspension cell cultures. The virus was eluted in 1.5 M NaCl salt with 20 mM Tris–HCl and 0.01% Zwittergent at pH 8.0. It was detected by native fluorescence and the total analysis time was 13.5 min. A linear response range was established between 1 × 109 and 1 × 1011 virus particle per ml (VP/ml) with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.99. The limit of detection was between 2.07 × 108 and 4.35 × 109 whereas the limit of quantification was between 6.90 × 108 and 1.45 × 1010 VP/ml, respectively. The coefficient of variation of the intra- and inter-day precision of the method was less than 5% and 10%. HPLC data compared well with results obtained by electron microscopy, HA assay and with a virus counter, and was used to monitor virus concentrations in the supernatant obtained directly from the cell culture production vessels. The HPLC influenza virus analytical method can potentially be suitable as an in-process monitoring tool to accelerate the development of processes for the manufacturing of influenza vaccines.
J. Ruscic, I. Gutiérrez-Aguirre, M. Tusek Znidaric, S. Kolundzija, A. Slana, M. Barut, M. Ravnikar, M. Krajacic
Journal of Chromatography A, 1388 (2015) 69–78
The emergence of next-generation "deep" sequencing has enabled the study of virus populations with much higher resolutions. This new tool increases the possibility of observing mixed infections caused by combinations of plant viruses, which are likely to occur more frequently than previously thought. The bio-logical impact of co-infecting viruses on their host has yet to be determined and fully understood, and the first step towards reaching this goal is the separation and purification of individual species. Ion-exchange monolith chromatography has been used successfully for the purification and concentration of different viruses, and number of them have been separated from plant homogenate or bacterial and eukaryoticlysate. Thus, the question remained as to whether different virus species present in a single sample could be separated. In this study, anion-exchange chromatography using monolithic supports was optimized for fast and efficient partial purification of three model plant viruses: Turnip yellow mosaic virus, Tomato bushy stunt virus, and Tobacco mosaic virus. The virus species, as well as two virus strains, were separated from each other in a single chromatographic experiment from an artificially mixed sample. Based on A260/280 ratios, we were able to attribute specific peaks to a certain viral morphology/structure (icosa-hedral or rod-shaped). This first separation of individual viruses from an artificially prepared laboratory mixture should encourage new applications of monolithic chromatographic supports in the separation of plant, bacterial, or animal viruses from all kinds of mixed samples.
M. Zaveckas, S. Snipaitis, H. Pesliakas, J. Nainys, A. Gedvilaite
Journal of Chromatography B, 991 (2015) 21–28
Diseases associated with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection are having a severe economic impacton swine-producing countries. The PCV2 capsid (Cap) protein expressed in eukaryotic systems self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) which can serve as antigens for diagnostics or/and as vaccinecandidates. In this work, conventional adsorbents as well as a monolithic support with large pore sizeswere examined for the chromatographic purification of PCV2 Cap VLPs from clarified yeast lysate. QSepharose XL was used for the initial separation of VLPs from residual host nucleic acids and some hostcell proteins. For the further purification of PCV2 Cap VLPs, SP Sepharose XL, Heparin Sepharose CL-6Band CIMmultus SO3 monolith were tested. VLPs were not retained on SP Sepharose XL. The purity of VLPsafter chromatography on Heparin Sepharose CL-6B was only 4–7% and the recovery of VLPs was 5–7%.Using ion-exchange chromatography on the CIMmultus SO3 monolith, PCV2 Cap VLPs with the purityof about 40% were obtained. The recovery of VLPs after chromatography on the CIMmultus SO3 mono-lith was 15–18%. The self-assembly of purified PCV2 Cap protein into VLPs was confirmed by electronmicroscopy. Two-step chromatographic purification procedure of PCV2 Cap VLPs from yeast lysate wasdeveloped using Q Sepharose XL and cation-exchange CIMmultus SO3 monolith.
M. M. Segura, M. Puig, J. Piedra, S. Miravet
Adenovirus: Methods and protocols, Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 1089
Adenovirus vectors are efficient gene delivery tools. A major caveat with vectors derived from common human adenovirus serotypes is that most adults are likely to have been exposed to the wild-type virus and exhibit active immunity against the vectors. This preexisting immunity limits their clinical success. Strategies to circumvent this problem include the use of nonhuman adenovirus vectors. Vectors derived from canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) are among the best-studied representatives. CAV-2 vectors are particularly attractive for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, CAV-2 vectors have shown great promise as oncolytic agents in virotherapy approaches and as vectors for recombinant vaccines. The rising interest in CAV-2 vectors calls for the development of scalable GMP compliant production and purification strategies. A detailed protocol describing a complete scalable downstream processing strategy for CAV-2 vectors is reported here. Clarification of CAV-2 particles is achieved by microfiltration. CAV-2 particles are subsequently concentrated and partially purified by ultrafiltration–diafiltration. A Benzonase® digestion step is carried out between ultrafiltration and diafiltration operations to eliminate contaminating nucleic acids. Chromatography purification is accomplished in two consecutive steps. CAV-2 particles are first captured and concentrated on a propyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography column followed by a polishing step using DEAE anion exchange monoliths. Using this protocol, high-quality CAV-2 vector preparations containing low levels of contamination with empty viral capsids and other inactive vector forms are typically obtained. The complete process yield was estimated to be 38–45 %.
M.-C. Claudepierrea, et al.
Journal of Virology, February 2014
To identify novel stimulators of the innate immune system, we constructed a panel of eight HEK293-cells lines, double-positive for human Toll-like receptors (TLR) and a NF-κB-inducible reporter gene. Screening a large variety of compounds and cellular extracts detected a TLR3 activating compound in a microsomal yeast extract. Fractionation of this extract identified a RNA molecule of 4.6 kb, named Nucleic Acid Band 2 (NAB2) that was sufficient to confer the activation of TLR3. Digests with single- and double-strand-specific RNases showed the double-strand nature of this RNA, and its sequence was found to be identical to the genome of the dsRNA L-BC virus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A large scale production and purification process of this RNA was established based on chemical cell lysis and dsRNA-specific chromatography. NAB2 complexed with the cationic lipid Lipofectin, but neither NAB2 nor Lipofectin alone, induced the secretion of IL-12(p70), IFNα, IP-10, Mip-1β and IL-6 in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. While NAB2 activated TLR3, Lipofectin-stabilized NAB2 signaled also via the cytoplasmic sensor for RNA recognition MDA-5. Significant increase of RMA-MUC1 tumor rejection and survival was observed in C57BL/6 mice after prophylactic vaccination with MUC1-encoding MVA and NAB2+Lipofectin. This combination of immunotherapeutics strongly increased the percentage of infiltrating Natural Killer (NK) cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) at the injection sites, cell types which can modulate innate and adaptive immune responses.
M. Banjac, E. Roethl, F. Gelhart, P. Kramberger, B. Lah Jarc, M. Jarc, A. Štrancar, T. Muster, M. Peterka
We explored the possibilities for purification of various ΔNS1 live, replication deficient influenza viruseson ion exchange methacrylate monoliths. Influenza A ΔNS1-H1N1, ΔNS1-H3N2, ΔNS1-H5N1 and ΔNS1-influenza B viruses were propagated in Vero cells and concentrated by tangential flow filtration. All fourvirus strains adsorbed well to CIM QA and CIM DEAE anion exchangers, with CIM QA producing higherrecoveries than CIM DEAE. ΔNS1-influenza A viruses adsorbed well also to CIM SO3 cation exchanger atthe same pH, while ΔNS1-influenza B virus adsorption to CIM SO3 was not complete. Dynamic binding capacity (DBC) for CIM QA, DEAE and SO3 methacrylate monoliths for influenza A ΔNS1-H1N1virus were 1.9E + 10 TCID50/ml, 1.0E + 10 TCID50/ml and 8.9E + 08 TCID50/ml, respectively. Purification of ΔNS1 viruses on CIM QA was scaled up and reproducibility was confirmed. Yields of infectious viruson CIM QA were between 70.8 ± 32.3% and 87 ± 30.8%. Total protein removal varied from 93.3 ± 0.4% to98.6 ± 0.2% and host cell DNA removal efficiency was ranging from 76.4% to 99.9% and strongly dependedon pretreatment with deoxyribonuclease.
P. Fernandes, C. Peixoto, VM Santiago, EJ Kremer, AS Coroadinha and PM Alves
Gene Therapy (2012), 1–8
Canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) vectors overcome many of the clinical immunogenic concerns related to vectors derived from human adenoviruses (AdVs). In addition, CAV-2 vectors preferentially transduce neurons with an efficient traffic via axons to afferent regions when injected into the brain. To meet the need for preclinical and possibly clinical uses, scalable and robust production processes are required. CAV-2 vectors are currently produced in E1-transcomplementing dog kidney (DK) cells, which might raise obstacles in regulatory approval for clinical grade material production. In this study, a GMP-compliant bioprocess was developed. An MDCK-E1 cell line, developed by our group, was grown in scalable stirred tank bioreactors, using serum-free medium, and used to produce CAV-2 vectors that were afterwards purified using column chromatographic steps. Vectors producedin MDCK-E1 cells were identical to those produced in DK cells as assessed by SDS-PAGE and dynamic light scatering measurements (diameter and Zeta potential). Productivities of ~109 infectious particles (IP) ml-1 and 2x103 IP per cell were possible. A downstream process using technologies transferable to process scales was developed, yielding 63% global recovery. The total particles to IP ratio in the purified product (<20:1) was within the limits specified by the regulatory authorities for AdV vectors. These results constitute a step toward a scalable process for CAV-2 vector production compliant with clinical material specifications.
P. Gerster, E.-M. Kopecky, N. Hammerschmidt, M. Klausberger, F. Krammer, R. Grabherr, C. Mersich, L. Urbas, P. Kramberger, T. Paril, M. Schreiner, K. Nöbauer, E. Razzazi-Fazeli, A. Jungbauer
Journal of Chromatography A, 1290 (2013) 36-45(2013) 36-45
A chromatographic process based on monoliths for purification of infective baculovirus without prior concentration step has been established. Baculovirus produced in Spodoptera frugiperda cells (Sf-9) were harvested by centrifugation, filtered through 0.8 μm filters and directly loaded onto radial 1 mL anion exchange monoliths with a channel size of 1.5–2.0 μm operated at a volumetric flow rate of one bed volume per minute. Optional an epoxy monolith was used as pre-column to reduce interfering compounds and substances influencing the capacity of anion exchange monoliths for baculovirus infectious virus could be eluted with a step gradient at salt concentrations of 440 mM NaCl. Recovery of infectious virus was highly influenced by composition and age of supernatant and ranged from 20 to >99% active baculovirus. Total protein content could be reduced to 1–8% and DNA content to 38–48% in main virus fraction. Infective virus could be 52-fold concentrated within 20.5 h and simultaneously an 82-fold volume reduction was possible when loading 1150 mL (2.1 × 108 pfu/mL) onto 1 mL scale support.
A. Steyer, I. Gutierrez-Aguire, M. Kolenc, S. Koren, D. Kutnjak, M. Pokorn, M. Poljšak-Prijatelj, N. Rački, M. Ravnikar, M. Sagadin, A. Fratnik Steyer, N. Toplak
Journal of Clinical Microbiology, November 2013
Mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRV) are known to cause mild enteric and respiratory infections in humans. They are widespread and infect a broad spectrum of mammals. We report here the first case of MRV detected in a child with acute gastroenteritis, which showed the highest similarity to MRV reported recently in European bats. Stool sample examination of the child was negative for most common viral and bacterial pathogens. Reovirus particles were identified by electron microscopic examination of both stool suspension and cell culture supernatant. The whole genome sequence was obtained with the Ion Torrent next generation sequencing platform. Prior to sequencing, stool sample suspension and cell culture supernatant were pre-treated with nucleases and/or the convective interaction media (CIM) monolithic chromatographic method to purify and concentrate the target viral nucleic acid. Whole genome sequence analysis revealed that the Slovenian SI-MRV01 isolate was most similar to MRV found in bat in Germany. High similarity was shared in all genome segments, with nucleotide and amino acid identities between 93.8-99.0% and 98.4-99.7%, respectively. It was shown that CIM monolithic chromatography alone is an efficient method for enriching the sample in viral particles before nucleic acid isolation and next generation sequencing application.
H. M. Oksanen, A. Domanska, D. H. Bamford
Virology Volume 434, Issue 2, 20 December 2012
We report anion exchange chromatographic purification method powerful for preparation of virus particles with ultra pure quality. The technology is based on large pore size monolithic anion exchangers, quaternary amine (QA) and diethylaminoethyl (DEAE). These were applied to membrane-containing icosahedral bacteriophage PRD1, which bound specifically to both matrices. Virus particles eluted from the columns retained the ir infectivity, and were homogenous with high specific infectivity. The yields of infectious particles were up to 80%. Purified particles were recovered at high concentrations, approximately 5mg/ml, sufficient for virological, biochemical and structural analyses. We also tested the applicability of the monolithic anion exchange purification on a filamentous bacteriophage phi 05_2302. Monolithic ion exchange chromatography is easily scalable and can be combined with other preparative virus purification methods.
T. Koho, T. Mantyla, P. Laurinmaki, L. Huhti, S. J. Butcher, T. Vesikari, M. S. Kulomaa, V. P. Hytonen
Journal of Virological Methods 181 (2012) 6-11
Recombinant expression of the norovirus capsid protein VP1 leads to self-assembly of non-infectious virus-like particles (VLPs), which are recognized as promising vaccine candidates against norovirus infections. To overcome the scalability issues connected to the ultracentrifugation-based purification strategies used in previous studies, an anion exchange-based purification method for norovirus VLPs was developed in this study. The method consists of precipitation by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and a single anion exchange chromatography step for purifying baculovirus-expressed GII.4 norovirus VLPs, which can be performed within one day. High product purity was obtained using chromatography. The purified material also contained fully assembled monodispersed VLPs, which were recognized by human sera containing polyclonal antibodies against norovirus GII.4.
M. Rupar, M. Ravnikar, M. Tušek-Žnidarič, P. Kramberger, L. Glais, I. Gutiérrez-Aguirre
Journal of Chromatography A, 1272 (2013) 33-40(2013) 33-40
Obtaining pure virus suspensions is an essential step in many applications, such as vaccine production, antibody production, sample preparation for procedures requiring enrichment in viruses and other in vitro characterizations. Purification procedures usually consist of complex, long lasting and tedious protocols involving several ultracentrifugation steps. Such complexity is particularly evident in the case of plant viruses, where the virus needs to be isolated from the complex plant tissue matrix. Convective Interaction Media (CIM) monoliths are chromatographic supports that have been successfully utilized for the purification of large bio-molecules such as viruses, virus like particles and plasmids from various matrixes. In this study a CIM monolith based procedure was developed for the fast purification from plant tissue of the filamentous Potato virus Y (PVY) (virion size, 740 nm × 11 nm), which is one of the most important plant viruses causing great economical losses in potato production. Different mobile phases, chemistries and sample preparation strategies were tested. The presence of the virus in the chromatographic fraction was monitored with viral RNA quantification (RT-qPCR), viral protein purity estimation (SDS-PAGE) and viral particle integrity observation (transmission electron microscopy). The optimized procedure involves initial clarification steps, followed by chromatography using CIM quaternary amine (QA) monolithic disk column. In comparison to classical purification procedure involving ultracentrifugation through sucrose and caesium chloride, the developed CIM-QA purification achieved comparable yield, concentration and purity. Plant nucleic acids were successfully removed. Purification showed good reproducibility and moreover it reduced the purification time from four working days required for classic purification to a day and a half. This is the first study where a filamentous virus was purified using CIM monolithic supports. The advantages of this new purification procedure make it an attractive method in serological diagnostic tool production, which requires purified viruses for the immunization step. Moreover, the outcome of this study could serve as starting point for the improvement of the purification methods of other important filamentous viruses.
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M. M. Segura, M. Puig, M. Monfar, M. Chillon
HUMAN GENE THERAPY METHODS 23:182–197 (June 2012)
Canine adenovirus vectors (CAV2) are currently being evaluated for gene therapy, oncolytic virotherapy, and as vectors for recombinant vaccines. Despite the need for increasing volumes of purified CAV2 preparations for preclinical and clinical testing, their purification still relies on the use of conventional, scale-limited CsCl ul- tracentrifugation techniques. A complete downstream processing strategy for CAV2 vectors based on membrane filtration and chromatography is reported here. Microfiltration and ultra/diafiltration are selected for clarifi- cation and concentration of crude viral stocks containing both intracellular and extracellular CAV2 particles. A DNase digestion step is introduced between ultrafiltration and diafiltration operations. At these early stages, concentration of vector stocks with good recovery of viral particles (above 80%) and removal of a substantial amount of protein and nucleic acid contaminants is achieved. The ability of various chromatography techniques to isolate CAV2 particles was evaluated. Hydrophobic interaction chromatography using a Fractogel propyl tentacle resin was selected as a first chromatography step, because it allows removal of the bulk of contami- nating proteins with high CAV2 yields (88%). An anion-exchange chromatography step using monolithic supports is further introduced to remove the remaining contaminants with good recovery of CAV2 particles (58– 69%). The main CAV2 viral structural components are visualized in purified preparations by electrophoresis analyses. Purified vector stocks contained intact icosahedral viral particles, low contamination with empty viral capsids (10%), and an acceptable total-to-infectious particle ratio (below 30). The downstream processing strategy that was developed allows preparation of large volumes of high-quality CAV2 stocks.
N. Mehle, M. Ravnikar
Water research 46 (2012) 4902 - 4917
The presence of plant viruses outside their plant host or insect vectors has not been studied intensively. This is due, in part, to the lack of effective detection methods that would enable their detection in difficult matrixes and in low titres, and support the search for unknown viruses. Recently, new and sensitive methods for detecting viruses have resulted in a deeper insight into plant virus movement through, and transmission between, plants. In this review, we have focused on plant viruses found in environmental waters and their detection. Infectious plant pathogenic viruses from at least 7 different genera have been found in aqueous environment. The majority of the plant pathogenic viruses so far recovered from environmental waters are very stable, they can infect plants via the roots without the aid of a vector and often have a wide host range. The release of such viruses from plants can lead to their dissemination in streams, lakes, and rivers, thereby ensuring the long-distance spread of viruses that otherwise, under natural conditions, would remain restricted to limited areas.
The possible sources and survival of plant viruses in waters are therefore discussed. Due to the widespread use of hydroponic systems and intensive irrigation in horticulture, the review is focused on the possibility and importance of spreading viral infection by water, together with measures for preventing the spread of viruses. The development of new methods for detecting multiple plant viruses at the same time, like microarrays or new generation sequencing, will facilitate the monitoring of environmental waters and waters used for irrigation and in hydroponic systems. It is reasonable to expect that the list of plant viruses found in waters will thereby be expanded considerably. This will emphasize the need for further studies to determine the biological significance of water-mediated transport.
V. Bandeira, C. Peixoto, A. F. Rodrigues, P. E. Cruz, P. M. Alves, A. S. Coroadinha, M. J. T. Carrondo
Human Gene Therapy Methods 23:1-9 (August 2012)
Lentiviral vectors (LVs) hold great potential as gene delivery vehicles. However, the manufacturing and purification of these vectors still present major challenges, mainly because of the low stability of the virus, essentially due to the fragility of the membrane envelope. The main goal of this work was the establishment of a fast, scalable, and robust downstream protocol for LVs, combining microfiltration, anion-exchange, and ultrafiltration membrane technologies toward maximization of infectious LVs recovery. CIM® (Convective Interaction Media) monolithic columns with diethylaminoethanol (DEAE) anion exchangers were used for the purification of clarified LV supernatants, allowing infectious vector recoveries of 80%, which is 10% higher than the values currently reported in the literature. These recoveries, combined with the results obtained after optimization of the remaining downstream purification steps, resulted in overall infectious LV yields of 36%. Moreover, the inclusion of a Benzonase step allowed a removal of approximately 99% of DNA impurities. The entire downstream processing strategy herein described was conceived based on disposable and easily scalable technologies. Overall, CIM DEAE columns have shown to be a good alternative for the purification of LVs, since they allow faster processing of the viral bulks and enhanced preservation of virus biological activity, consequently, increasing infectious vector recoveries.
E. M. Adriaenssens et al.
SciVerse ScienceDirect, Virology, 2012
The use of anion-exchange chromatography was investigated as an alternative method to concentrate and purify bacterial viruses, and parameters for different bacteriophages were compared. Chromatography was performed with Convective Interactive Media® monoliths, with three different volumes and two matrix chemistries. Eleven morphologically distinct phages were tested, infecting five different bacterial species. For each of the phages tested, a protocol was optimized, including the choice of column chemistry, loading, buffer and elution conditions. The capacity and recovery of the phages on the columns varied considerably between phages. We conclude that anion-exchange chromatography with monoliths is a valid alternative to the more traditional CsCl purification, has upscaling advantages, but it requires more extensive optimization.