M. Morani, T.Duc Mai, Z. Krupova, P. Defrenaix, E. Multia, M. Riekkola, M. Taverna
Analytica Chimica Acta 1128 (2020) 45-51
This work reports on the development of the first capillary electrophoresis methodology for the elucidation of extracellular vesicles’ (EVs) electrokinetic distributions. The approach is based on capillary electrophoresis coupled with laser-induced fluorescent (LIF) detection for the identification and quantification of EVs after their isolation. Sensitive detection of these nanometric entities was possible thanks to an ‘inorganic-species-free’ background electrolyte. This electrolyte was made up of weakly charged molecules at very high concentrations to stabilize EVs, and an intra-membrane labelling approach was used to prevent EV morphology modification. The limit of detection for EVs achieved using the developed CE-LIF method method reached 8 × 10⁹ EVs/mL, whereas the calibration curve was acquired from 1.22 × 10¹⁰ to 1.20 × 10¹¹ EVs/mL. The CE-LIF approach was applied to provide the electrokinetic distributions of various EVs of animal and human origins, and visualize different EV subpopulations from our recently developed high-yield EV isolation method.
Pete Gagnon, Katja Vrabec, Tjaša Lojpur, and Aleš Štrancar
BioProcess International, 18 (4) April 2020
Exosomes are a subject of rapidly growing therapeutic interest in the biopharmaceutical industry for two principal reasons. The first reason is that they are the primary communicators of instructions from source cells to target cells. Exosome surface features define their destination. They recognize complementary features on target cells, dock with them, and deliver their programmed instructions in the form of microRNA. The second reason is that exosomes are immunologically silent. As normal human cell products, and by contrast with gene therapy vectors such as virus particles, exosomes bypass the issue of triggering an immune response that might interfere with therapy.
Source cells include stem cells, which is why exosomes are of particular interest in the field of regenerative medicine. Recent research documenting the ability of exosomes to reverse the effects of severe strokes highlights their potential. It also underlines the need for scalable purification technology to advance these products through clinical trials and on to licensed manufacture. A platform approach was a major factor in the initial and continuing success of monoclonal antibodies. Exosomes likewise represent an extended family of individual products with similar properties. It stands to reason that a platform approach will prove equally valuable for exosomes. In this article we describe initial efforts toward that goal.
Evgen Multia, Crystal Jing Ying Tear, Mari Palviainen, Pia Siljander, Marja-Liisa Riekkola
Analytica Chimica Acta (2019).
Published online 2019 Sep 11.
A new, fast and selective immunoaffinity chromatographic method including a methacrylate-based convective interaction media (CIM®) disk monolithic column, immobilized with anti-human CD61 antibody, was developed for the isolation of CD61-containing platelet-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) from plasma. The isolated EVs were detected and size characterized by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF) with multi-angle light-scattering (MALS) and dynamic light-scattering (DLS) detection, and further confirmed by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The isolation procedure took only 19 min and the time can be even further decreased by increasing the flow rate. The same immunoaffinity chromatographic procedure, following AsFlFFF allowed also the isolation and characterization of platelet-derived EVs from plasma in under 60 min. Since it is possible to regenerate the anti-CD61 disk for multiple uses, the methodology developed in this study provides a viable substitution and addition to the conventional EV isolation procedures.
Keywords: Immunoaffinity chromatography, Isolation, Monolithic disk column, Extracellular vesicles, Platelet-derived vesicles, CD61
This discussion introduces new analytical approaches that enable in-line chromatographic detection of exosomes. One approach can discriminate extracellular vesicles from nonvesicle contaminants, and one potentially can discriminate exosomes from other vesicles. Examples illustrate how they enable development of more effective and better documented purification methods. The special qualifications of monolithic chromatography media for exosome purification are discussed. New process tools designed to accommodate some of the special challenges of exosome purification are introduced.
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