M. V. Volokitina, E. G. Vlakh, G. A. Platonova, D. O. Vinokhodov, T. B. Tennikova
J. Sep. Sci. 2013, 36, 2793-2805

Two ribonuclease A bioreactors based on lab-made macroporous monolithic columns and intended for polynucleotide degradation were prepared using in situ free-radical polymerization. Different methods of enzyme immobilization were applied. In the first case, the biocatalyst molecule was attached to the solid surface via direct covalent binding, while in the second bioreactor the flexible-chain synthetic polymer was used as an intermediate spacer. The effect of temperature, substrate flow rate, and loaded sample volume on the biocatalytic efficiency of the immobilized enzyme was examined. The kinetic parameters of the enzymatic degradation of synthetic polycytidylic acid were calculated and compared to those found for hydrolysis with soluble ribonuclease A. The monitoring of substrate splitting was carried out by means of fast anion-exchange HPLC on an ultra-short monolithic column (disk) using off- and on-line analytical approaches.

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E. A. Ponomareva, M. V. Volokitina, D. O. Vinokhodov, E. G. Vlakh, T. B. Tennikova

Anal Bioanal Chem (2013) 405:2195–2206

Immobilized enzyme reactors (IMERs) produced by the covalent attachment of ribonuclease A to macroporous
methacrylate-based monolithic supports using different experimental approaches are discussed and compared. Enzyme immobilization was carried out by direct covalent binding, as well as through attachment via a polymer spacer. The kinetic properties of an IMER operating in either recirculation mode or zonal elution mode were studied. Additionally, the effect of flow rate on the bioconversion efficiency of each IMER sample was examined.

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F. Mancini, V. Andrisano

Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 52 (2010) 355-361

A novel liquid chromatographic method has been developed for use in throughput screening of new inhibitors of human recombinant β-amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme (hrBACE1). The approach is based on the use of an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) containing the target enzyme (hrBACE1–IMER) and uses fluorescence detection. The bioreactor was prepared by immobilizing hrBACE1 on an ethylendiamine (EDA) monolithic disk (CIM) and a fluorogenic peptide (M-2420) containing the β-secretase site of the Swedish mutation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) was used as substrate. After injection into the hrBACE1–IMER system, M-2420 was enzymatically cleaved, giving rise to a fluorescent methoxycoumaryl-fragment (Rt = 1.6 min), which was separated from the substrate and selectively detected at λexc = 320 and λem = 420 nm. Product and substrate were characterized by using a post monolithic C18 stationary phase coupled to an ion trap mass analyser. A calibration curve was constructed to determine the immobilized hrBACE1–IMER rate of catalysis and kinetic constants. Specificity of the enzymatic cleavage was confirmed by injecting the substrate on a blank CIM-EDA.

The proposed method was validated by the determination of the inhibitory potency of five reference compounds with activities ranked over four order of magnitude (four peptidic inhibitors and a green tea polyphenol, (−)gallocatechin gallate). The obtained results were found in agreement with the data reported in literature, confirming the validity and the applicability of the hrBACE1–IMER as a tool for the fast screening of unknown inhibitors (more than 6 compounds per hour). Moreover, the hrBACE1–IMER showed high stability during the analysis, permitting its use for more than three months without affecting enzyme activity.

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M. Benčina, K. Benčina, A. Štrancar, A. Podgornik

Journal of Chromatography A, 1065 (2005) 83–91(2005) 83–91

A deoxyribonuclease bioreactor was prepared by immobilization of deoxyribonuclease I through epoxy groups inherently present on poly (glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monoliths. Columns with various levels of DNase activity were prepared varying immobilization temperature, pH, time and method. The apparent Michaelis–Menten constant, Kmapp, and turnover number, k3app, for immobilized DNase determined by on-line frontal analysis method were, respectively, 0.28 g of DNA l-1 and 16 dA260nm min-1 mg-1 of immobilized DNase. The highest activity of immobilized DNase was detected at 1 mM calcium ions concentration and mirrored properties of free enzyme; however, reaction temperature in the range from 25 to 37 °C has no significant effect on activity of immobilized DNase in contrary to free enzyme. The CIM DNase bioreactor was used for elimination of DNA contaminants in RNA samples prior to reverse transcription followed by PCR.

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M. Benčina, J. Babič, A. Podgornik

Journal of Chromatography A, 1144 (2007) 135–142

In gene therapy and DNA vaccination, RNA removal from DNA preparations is vital and is typically achieved by the addition of ribonuclease into the sample. Removal of ribonuclease from DNA samples requires an additional purification step. An alternative is the implementation of immobilized ribonuclease. In our work, ribonuclease was covalently coupled onto the surface of methacrylate monoliths via epoxy or imidazole carbamate groups. Various immobilization conditions were tested by changing immobilization pH. Ribonuclease immobilized on the monolith via imidazole carbamate groups at pH 9 was found to be six times more active than the ribonuclease immobilized on the monolith via epoxy groups. Under optimal immobilization conditions the Michaelis–Menten constant, Km, for cytidine-2,3-cyclic monophosphate, and turnover number, k3 were 0.52 mM and 4.6 s-1, respectively, and mirrored properties of free enzyme. Enzyme reactor was found to efficiently eliminate RNA contaminants from DNA samples. It was active for several weeks of operation and processed 300 column volumes of sample. Required residence time to eliminate RNA was estimated to be around 0.5 min enabling flow rates above 1 column volume per min.

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