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2022

Standard 96-well design offers a great advantage for screening many samples or conditions and supports process automatization. Our approach was multi-parallel screening of different mobile phases for rAAV capture step using CIM® SO3 0.05 mL Monolithic 96-well Plates. Buffers of different pH, sodium chloride concentrations and use of Poloxamer 188 were screened to purify AAV2/9 clarified lysate obtained from Sf9 cells. Sample was pretreated by tangential flow filtration (TFF) coupled with nuclease treatment – Kryptonase. It was shown that the optimal conditions were buffers of pH 3.5, 500 mM NaCl, with addition of Poloxamer 188. Verification of results with selected buffer resulted in high capacity (1.44E14 capsids/mL SO3), great recovery (87.7 %) and excellent protein and DNA reduction (99.98 and 99.25 %).

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In each adeno associated virus (AAV) downstream process one of the key steps is enrichment of full capsids. This could be achieved by density gradient ultracentrifugation however a main drawback is its scalability. A more common approach is liquid chromatography using ion exchange chemistries, which based on particles’ charge differences, enables separation of full (F) capsids and product related impurities including non functioning AAV capsids (empty, partially filled, misfolded and wrongly packaged genome or other DNA containing subspecies).

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Removal of impurities generated in the production of adeno associated virus (AAV) is an important step as they may pose a serious health risk, as well as deteriorate the economics of the production process. The most critical subsets of these impurities include: host cell nucleic acids, host cell proteins, chromatin, capsid aggregates, capsid DNA complexes and empty capsids.
This poster introduces two new column s for performing separation of empty (E) and full (F) capsids using multimodal approach. A PATfix® system with three different detectors, i. e. absorbance, fluorescence, and light scattering in combination with three analytical columns traded as CIMac ™ AAV Empty/Full, CIMac PrimaS ™ (AAV) - Beta, and CIMac ™ PrimaT - Beta by BIA Separations Sartorius. The separation columns were used to determine and evaluate empty AAV capsids as one of the critical impurities in AAV samples. The analytical results using CIMac PrimaS™ (AAV)-Beta and CIMac™ Prima T- Beta show that other fast and reliable orthogonal HPLC methods to the CIMac™ AAV full/empty column can also be used for the separation of empty and full capsids with monolithic columns.

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2021

The recently demonstrated efficacy of mRNA-based Covid-19 vaccines has shown promise of this therapeutic format, but also highlighted the need for higher efficiency of mRNA production to meet enormous needs for global vaccine supply.

Typical mRNA production process involves three key steps: 1) plasmid DNA (pDNA) production in supercoiled (sc) isoform, linearization and purification, 2) in-vitro transcription (IVT) reaction and 3) mRNA purification.

Here we present a chromatographic toolbox and mRNA IVT synthesis for integrated mRNA production from pDNA to mRNA purification, including in-process analytics. This high yield process reduces the overall number of purification steps required, improves recoveries, results in extra low protein impurity and allows for very efficient dsRNA removal.

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Adenovirus has after two decades gained new consideration and is now used as a COVID-19 vaccine delivery vehicle. To reduce side effects of the vaccine it’s purity is of utmost importance. Constant enhancement of the vaccine purity and improvement of the impurity detection methods is therefore necessitated. In this work we present second generation adenoviral vectors purification procedure based on monolith chromatography using CIMmultus QA to secure safer product, as well the accompanying analytical tools. The novel industrial process secures better purity at higher yields. The robustness of the process was verified using different upstream materials. Manufacturing of the vaccines in large quantities due to pandemic represent great challenges, mainly in terms of production time and costs. Higher capacity of the CIMmultus QA columns used in this process overcomes the raw material supply bottlenecks.

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The IVT reaction is one of the most expensive steps in mRNA production process and its optimization to reach high mRNA yield is of key importance Standard mRNA quantification techniques like absorbance and fluorescence based assays are time consuming and cannot be performed at line as the IVT reaction progresses In addition, other reaction components like nucleotides and pDNA interfere in the analytical results and reduce the method’s accuracy A new approach shown here uses CIMac PrimaS™ analytical HPLC column to separate and quantify several key IVT components with a very short run time, enabling fast “at line” tracking

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Density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGUC) is a well established tool for Empty/ Full AAV capsid separation based on density differences between AVV sub-populations. However DGUC practice is laborious and lacks any detection options, therefore fractions must be collected manually and analyzed later. Both of these shortcomings can be addressed by coupling post DGUC workflow to PATfix analytical system. BIA Separations PATfix platform provides sufficient tools for liquid extraction and fractionation as well as a comprehensive detector suite for precise fraction characterization. Baseline separation of capsid species was achieved in a density gradient of CsCl, producing a centrifugram that reveals information traditional DGUC and anion exchange chromatography cannot.

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Removal of empty capsids is a particular goal of AAV purification. Multimodal PrimaT ligand offers new options for removal of empty and also
damaged capsids. Besides it also contributes to better clearance of contaminating DNA. PrimaT works for different AAV serotypes - for example AAV 2/8 and AAV 2/9. AAV 2/8 or AAV 2/9 clarified harvest from Sf 9 cells was first processed by tangential flow filtration (TFF) coupled with Kryptonase treatment to reduce host cell DNA. Initial AAV capture step was performed on CIMmultus SO3 cation exchange column. After elution with sodium chloride gradient AAV fraction was cleared of DNA and protein contaminants. Separation of empty and full AAV capsids was performed by multimodal metal affinity chromatography with CIMac and CIMmultus PrimaT.

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Optimizing processing steps in sc pDNA isolation is critical for obtaining good process yields as well as high product purity. PATfix platform with convective chromatography media (e.g. monolith) offers a rapid analytical method to characterize complex biomolecular mixtures and gives immediate feedback during process development. E coli lysis represents such a challenging step, where multiple critical quality attributes need to be identified and critical processing parameters optimized. This approach leads to better yields and product purity, allowing for simplified downstream steps. A new PATfix analytical platform presented here uses CIMac pDNA column, to separate and characterize plasmid from impurities, allowing for easy optimization of key parameters such as RNA removal.

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In mRNA production process, downstream purification of in vitro transcription (IVT) reaction often relies on precipitation methods which cannot provide resolution, recovery, or reproducibility to consistently produce a safe and effective product with good process economics. mRNA is a large biomolecule (mass of 1000 nt is ~ 150 kDa and >100 nm in diameter) for which porous particle chromatography lacks the ability to support high capacity and throughput to achieve good process economics. Convective flow chromatography media (e.g. monoliths) is an optimal platform for purification. A fully scalable chromatographic purification process is presented for a posttranscriptionally capped in vitro transcribedmRNA.

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AAV9 clarified harvest from Sf9 cells was concentrated and purified using combination of tangential flow filtration, nuclease treatment and cation exchange capture. First part was TFF coupled with Kryptonase treatment. Capture step was performed on CIMmultus SO3 cation exchange column. AAV elution fraction was cleared of DNA and protein contaminants and prepared for final polishing – empty capsid removal. PrimaT separation mechanism is based on ligand multimodality, one of them being metal-chelating ability. This was sucessfully exploited for AAV capsid separation.

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2020

Linearised pDNA is currently the starting point of In-Vitro-Transcription processes to synthesize mRNA. Large scale purification protocols for manufacturing of pDNA used for Gene Therapy applications typically include two chromatography steps. The first step captures both linear, open circular and supercoiled pDNA species. The polishing step enriches supercoiled pDNA, while discarding other isoforms. We describe a single-step-capture strategy to maximize the recovery of pDNA for further linearization.

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The increasing demand for messenger RNA (mRNA) as a therapeutic product requires larger production scales and more efficient extraction techniques. In this poster, fast and efficient way to purify poly-adenylated mRNA using affinity chromatography on CIMmultus™ Oligo dT column is presented.

The poly-adenylated tail of mRNA interacts with covalently bound oligo dT ligands in high-salt loading conditions, where electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged backbones of both, mRNA and oligo dT, are reduced and H-bonding in T-A base pair is emphasized. High salt concentration additionally screens out attractive electrostatic interactions between mRNA and other components in the process sample, thus facilitating aggregate reduction in purified product.

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Separation of empty and full AAV capsids is important analytically as a means of monitoring the effects of different transfection strategies, cell culture conditions, lysis methods, sample preparation and purification methods. It is at least as important on a prepartive level because it offers the possibility of removing empty capsids without ultracentrifugation. This poster introduces a new column for performing separation of empty and full capsids.

CIMac PrimaS™ (AAV) beta employs a new ion exchange-hydrogen bonding multimodal ligand that provides a new orthogonal option for separation of empty and full capsids. Gross selectivity is similar to strong (QA) anion exchangers eluted with salt gradients, but it generally provides better resolution. Its distinct separation mechanism is documented by the fact that it provides its best results when eluted with increasing pH gradients. This is directly opposite to QA exchangers where increasing pH causes capsids to bind more strongly.

CIMac PrimaS™ (AAV) beta can also be eluted with salt gradients and often provides better resolution than QA, but its best resolution is obtained with pH gradients. Separation of a free capsid protein (CP) occurs only with the pH elution format. CIMac PrimaS™ (AAV) beta can be used instead of classical anion exchange, for example following capture by cation exchange chromatography or affinity. Its distinct separation mechanism also makes it possible to perform orthogonal separations in which it is combined with QA. 

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Bioreactor cell supernatants or post lysis materials entering downstream purification are heterogeneous mixtures of empty, full, and misassembled AAV capsids mixed with host cell proteins, genomic DNA, chromatin complexes, and other contaminants. Monolith- based HPLC columns provide high resolution among these species but overlap of elution position among capsids and contaminants makes it impossible to estimate the relative content of full and empty capsids by UV absorbance. Simultaneous monitoring with multiple detectors however enables quantitative insights that extend far beyond the limitations of UV absorbance.


This poster demonstrates how the combination of fast high resolution separations with monoliths can be combined with multiple monitors to obtain much deeper characterization than traditional assays. Anion exchange fractionation of filtered lysate and cation exchange- purified AAV 8 was monitored by UV absorbance at 260 nm and 280 nm, simultaneously with tryptophan fluorescence to differentially detect proteins without interference by nucleic acids, and with Multi Angle Light Scattering (MALS) to detect capsids.

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2019

Fast, accurate, and meaningful characterization of cell culture harvests and in process samples is critical for both process development and for documentation of in process control. UV analysis of chromatography profiles has been a valuable tool for decades, but it has major limitations with respect to sensitivity and its ability to discriminate the product of interest from particular contaminant classes.
In this study we use filtered lysate containing AAV 8 to demonstrate the ability of a strong cation exchange monolith (CIMac ™ SO3-0.1) coupled with multiple monitors to enable high sensitivity detection of AAV capsids while characterizing the relative distributions of DNA and protein contaminants. This approach can be used to evaluate cell culture methods, influence of harvest time, lysis methods, and effectivity of purification methods across a process.

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AAV vector lots are generally a heterogeneous mixture of empty particles (i e do not contain DNA) and full particles (i.e. contain DNA). Different spectrometric based methods can be used to establish the ratio between full and empty AAV particles, but accurate evaluation of empty/full ratio is often obstructed due to complex spectroscopic behavior of empty and full AAV particles, such as poor separation and impurity overlapping. An approach that takes difference in physical chemical properties between empty and full capsids into account overcomes limitations of spectrometric based evaluation of empty and full AAV particle ratio.

Chromatographic separation of empty and full AAV 2 8 capsids was achieved on the CIMac AAV full/empty analytical column (strong anion exchanger, QA quaternary amine chemistry) with the PATfix™ system using a linear NaCl gradient at pH 9.0 Signal response from three different detectors connected in series was analyzed fluorescence (excitation 280 nm emission 348 nm), light scattering 90 angle, LS) and UV absorbance 260 nm and 280 nm).

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Serotype 10 adeno-associated virus (AAVrh_10mCherry) was analysed on the PATfix™ system with the CIMac™ AAV full/empty analytical column to estimate the ratio of empty and full AAV particles based on the peak area of the chromatogram given with three different detectors. AAV included a protein capsid containing single stranded DNA. CIMac™ AAV column consisted of a strong anion exchanger with QA chemistry (quaternary amine).

Poster was prepared by Blaz Goricar and presented at ISBioTech 9th Spring Meeting where it was awarded the first prize. Congratulations!

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2018

This poster presents fully scalable non-affinity purification strategy that has been proven to be effective for all AAV serotype tested to date. Cell lysate is directly subjected to column purification after removal of cell debris without requiring a concentration step using tangential flow filtration. The process consists of three chromatographic steps. Hydrophobic interaction chromatography on a CIMmultus OH monolith is used for initial virus capture and purification. Precipitating salts are used at 1.0–2.0 M to achieve virus binding. Most of the small molecule contaminants and proteins are eliminated in the flow-through. AAV co-elutes with a highly reduced population of contaminating proteins. DNA-protein complexes are very strongly retained and require NaOH for removal. Intermediate polishing is performed with a CIMmultus SO3 cation exchange monolith. The AAV fraction from the capture step is titrated to a pH value of 3.5—5.0 and diluted to binding conditions. Sugars and surfactants are added to suppress non-specific interactions with tubing and containers, and the product is eluted in a salt gradient. Final polishing is conducted on a CIMmultus QA anion exchange monolith which separates empty capsids from full capsids. This is achieved in a salt gradient at alkaline pH. For more information please refer to BIA Application note A048 (www.biaseparations.com/applications).

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Immunoaffinity columns using antibodies as ligands against mammalian proteins could be used for different applications in protein expression control and, if a standard available, for direct protein quantification in complex sample solutions. Additionally, these columns are ideal for polishing step of recombinant proteins, such as mammalian receptor Fc fusion proteins. Most importantly, such columns could extract a significant amount of a single membrane protein from native source, suitable for downstream analyses, such as mass spec analysis of their glycans. Immunoaffinity chromatographic monoliths against RAE-1 GPI anchored glycoprotein were developed (CIMmic HDZ - @RAE-1 column) as a part of Glycomet project with the main goal to analyze the antigen glycoprofile.

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