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2021

Removal of empty capsids is a particular goal of AAV purification. Multimodal PrimaT ligand offers new options for removal of empty and also
damaged capsids. Besides it also contributes to better clearance of contaminating DNA. PrimaT works for different AAV serotypes - for example AAV 2/8 and AAV 2/9. AAV 2/8 or AAV 2/9 clarified harvest from Sf 9 cells was first processed by tangential flow filtration (TFF) coupled with Kryptonase treatment to reduce host cell DNA. Initial AAV capture step was performed on CIMmultus SO3 cation exchange column. After elution with sodium chloride gradient AAV fraction was cleared of DNA and protein contaminants. Separation of empty and full AAV capsids was performed by multimodal metal affinity chromatography with CIMac and CIMmultus PrimaT.

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Optimizing processing steps in sc pDNA isolation is critical for obtaining good process yields as well as high product purity. PATfix platform with convective chromatography media (e.g. monolith) offers a rapid analytical method to characterize complex biomolecular mixtures and gives immediate feedback during process development. E coli lysis represents such a challenging step, where multiple critical quality attributes need to be identified and critical processing parameters optimized. This approach leads to better yields and product purity, allowing for simplified downstream steps. A new PATfix analytical platform presented here uses CIMac pDNA column, to separate and characterize plasmid from impurities, allowing for easy optimization of key parameters such as RNA removal.

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In mRNA production process, downstream purification of in vitro transcription (IVT) reaction often relies on precipitation methods which cannot provide resolution, recovery, or reproducibility to consistently produce a safe and effective product with good process economics. mRNA is a large biomolecule (mass of 1000 nt is ~ 150 kDa and >100 nm in diameter) for which porous particle chromatography lacks the ability to support high capacity and throughput to achieve good process economics. Convective flow chromatography media (e.g. monoliths) is an optimal platform for purification. A fully scalable chromatographic purification process is presented for a posttranscriptionally capped in vitro transcribedmRNA.

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AAV9 clarified harvest from Sf9 cells was concentrated and purified using combination of tangential flow filtration, nuclease treatment and cation exchange capture. First part was TFF coupled with Kryptonase treatment. Capture step was performed on CIMmultus SO3 cation exchange column. AAV elution fraction was cleared of DNA and protein contaminants and prepared for final polishing – empty capsid removal. PrimaT separation mechanism is based on ligand multimodality, one of them being metal-chelating ability. This was sucessfully exploited for AAV capsid separation.

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2020

PATfix with convective chromatography media (e.g.monolith) offers a rapid analytical method to characterise complex mixtures. Transcription reaction used for production of mRNA represents such a mixture, with components varying in size, chemical and physical properties. A new analytical approach (PATfix) presented here uses CIMac PrimaS to separate IVT components such as triphosphate-nucleotides (NTPs), enzymes, DNA template and RNA in a very short gradient.

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Linearised pDNA is currently the starting point of In-Vitro-Transcription processes to synthesize mRNA. Large scale purification protocols for manufacturing of pDNA used for Gene Therapy applications typically include two chromatography steps. The first step captures both linear, open circular and supercoiled pDNA species. The polishing step enriches supercoiled pDNA, while discarding other isoforms. We describe a single-step-capture strategy to maximize the recovery of pDNA for further linearization.

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The increasing demand for messenger RNA (mRNA) as a therapeutic product requires larger production scales and more efficient extraction techniques. In this poster, fast and efficient way to purify poly-adenylated mRNA using affinity chromatography on CIMmultus™ Oligo dT column is presented.

The poly-adenylated tail of mRNA interacts with covalently bound oligo dT ligands in high-salt loading conditions, where electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged backbones of both, mRNA and oligo dT, are reduced and H-bonding in T-A base pair is emphasized. High salt concentration additionally screens out attractive electrostatic interactions between mRNA and other components in the process sample, thus facilitating aggregate reduction in purified product.

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Separation of empty and full AAV capsids is important analytically as a means of monitoring the effects of different transfection strategies, cell culture conditions, lysis methods, sample preparation and purification methods. It is at least as important on a prepartive level because it offers the possibility of removing empty capsids without ultracentrifugation. This poster introduces a new column for performing separation of empty and full capsids.

CIMac PrimaS™ (AAV) beta employs a new ion exchange-hydrogen bonding multimodal ligand that provides a new orthogonal option for separation of empty and full capsids. Gross selectivity is similar to strong (QA) anion exchangers eluted with salt gradients, but it generally provides better resolution. Its distinct separation mechanism is documented by the fact that it provides its best results when eluted with increasing pH gradients. This is directly opposite to QA exchangers where increasing pH causes capsids to bind more strongly.

CIMac PrimaS™ (AAV) beta can also be eluted with salt gradients and often provides better resolution than QA, but its best resolution is obtained with pH gradients. Separation of a free capsid protein (CP) occurs only with the pH elution format. CIMac PrimaS™ (AAV) beta can be used instead of classical anion exchange, for example following capture by cation exchange chromatography or affinity. Its distinct separation mechanism also makes it possible to perform orthogonal separations in which it is combined with QA. 

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Bioreactor cell supernatants or post lysis materials entering downstream purification are heterogeneous mixtures of empty, full, and misassembled AAV capsids mixed with host cell proteins, genomic DNA, chromatin complexes, and other contaminants. Monolith- based HPLC columns provide high resolution among these species but overlap of elution position among capsids and contaminants makes it impossible to estimate the relative content of full and empty capsids by UV absorbance. Simultaneous monitoring with multiple detectors however enables quantitative insights that extend far beyond the limitations of UV absorbance.


This poster demonstrates how the combination of fast high resolution separations with monoliths can be combined with multiple monitors to obtain much deeper characterization than traditional assays. Anion exchange fractionation of filtered lysate and cation exchange- purified AAV 8 was monitored by UV absorbance at 260 nm and 280 nm, simultaneously with tryptophan fluorescence to differentially detect proteins without interference by nucleic acids, and with Multi Angle Light Scattering (MALS) to detect capsids.

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2019

Fast, accurate, and meaningful characterization of cell culture harvests and in process samples is critical for both process development and for documentation of in process control. UV analysis of chromatography profiles has been a valuable tool for decades, but it has major limitations with respect to sensitivity and its ability to discriminate the product of interest from particular contaminant classes.
In this study we use filtered lysate containing AAV 8 to demonstrate the ability of a strong cation exchange monolith (CIMac ™ SO3-0.1) coupled with multiple monitors to enable high sensitivity detection of AAV capsids while characterizing the relative distributions of DNA and protein contaminants. This approach can be used to evaluate cell culture methods, influence of harvest time, lysis methods, and effectivity of purification methods across a process.

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AAV vector lots are generally a heterogeneous mixture of empty particles (i e do not contain DNA) and full particles (i.e. contain DNA). Different spectrometric based methods can be used to establish the ratio between full and empty AAV particles, but accurate evaluation of empty/full ratio is often obstructed due to complex spectroscopic behavior of empty and full AAV particles, such as poor separation and impurity overlapping. An approach that takes difference in physical chemical properties between empty and full capsids into account overcomes limitations of spectrometric based evaluation of empty and full AAV particle ratio.

Chromatographic separation of empty and full AAV 2 8 capsids was achieved on the CIMac AAV full/empty analytical column (strong anion exchanger, QA quaternary amine chemistry) with the PATfix™ system using a linear NaCl gradient at pH 9.0 Signal response from three different detectors connected in series was analyzed fluorescence (excitation 280 nm emission 348 nm), light scattering 90 angle, LS) and UV absorbance 260 nm and 280 nm).

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One of the handicaps of working with bacteriophages is the long duration required to perform plaque assays. Plaque assays also impose questions about accuracy and precision relative to the scale and experience of the persons performing and interpreting them. This poster presents a pair of high precision, high accuracy chromatography-based assays that permit determination of phage concentration in less than 1 hour. Sensitivity of UV absorbance is poor because of the low concentration of phages. However, phage sensitivity is strongly amplified by monitoring the chromatogram with either fluorescence or MALS. Fluorescence works by measuring the fluorescence emission from tryptophan residues of the phage proteins. MALS works by passing a laser beam through the sample and reading the scatter produced when it encounters a particle. Larger species generate more scatter.

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Bacteriophages represent immense potential as therapeutic agents. Many of the most compelling applications of bacteriophages involve human therapy, some pertinent to gene therapy, others involving antibiotic replacement. In bacteriophage research and therapy, most applications ask for highly purified phage suspensions, as such it is crucial to reduce proteins, endotoxins, DNA and other contaminants. The most common technique for purification is ultracentrifugation using cesium chloride gradients. This technique is elaborate, cumbersome, expensive and difficult to scale-up.
Alternative techniques for purification are usually time consuming and affect phage recovery and/or viability. In this study we present efficient two-step chromatographic purification method with binding phages to a stationary phase - Convective Interaction Media (CIM®) monoliths. The aim of the study was to develop robust, fast and effective virus purification platform that can be used for several types of bacteriophages for any application. In this work bacterial lysate with bacteriophage T4 (host E.Coli) was used.

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Serotype 10 adeno-associated virus (AAVrh_10mCherry) was analysed on the PATfix™ system with the CIMac™ AAV full/empty analytical column to estimate the ratio of empty and full AAV particles based on the peak area of the chromatogram given with three different detectors. AAV included a protein capsid containing single stranded DNA. CIMac™ AAV column consisted of a strong anion exchanger with QA chemistry (quaternary amine).

Poster was prepared by Blaz Goricar and presented at ISBioTech 9th Spring Meeting where it was awarded the first prize. Congratulations!

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2018

This poster presents fully scalable non-affinity purification strategy that has been proven to be effective for all AAV serotype tested to date. Cell lysate is directly subjected to column purification after removal of cell debris without requiring a concentration step using tangential flow filtration. The process consists of three chromatographic steps. Hydrophobic interaction chromatography on a CIMmultus OH monolith is used for initial virus capture and purification. Precipitating salts are used at 1.0–2.0 M to achieve virus binding. Most of the small molecule contaminants and proteins are eliminated in the flow-through. AAV co-elutes with a highly reduced population of contaminating proteins. DNA-protein complexes are very strongly retained and require NaOH for removal. Intermediate polishing is performed with a CIMmultus SO3 cation exchange monolith. The AAV fraction from the capture step is titrated to a pH value of 3.5—5.0 and diluted to binding conditions. Sugars and surfactants are added to suppress non-specific interactions with tubing and containers, and the product is eluted in a salt gradient. Final polishing is conducted on a CIMmultus QA anion exchange monolith which separates empty capsids from full capsids. This is achieved in a salt gradient at alkaline pH. For more information please refer to BIA Application note A048 (www.biaseparations.com/applications).

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Chromatography is a useful purification method for large biomolecules and virus manufacturing and it is easily scalable to large production volumes. Convective Interaction Media (CIM) monolithic columns constitute of large flow-through channels and consequently have high surface accessibility of binding sites. Preferences of CIM monolithic columns are flow independent performance, resulting in fast separation, concentration, purification, impurities removal, and analytics of biopharmaceuticals.
The aim of the study was to develop Influenza virus purification platform, which can be used for several virus strains. The main objective was to develop a process with as little as possible of intermediate steps, especially omitting Tangential Flow Filtration (TFF) or other sample pre-treatments with high host-cell DNA and protein removal, as well as to achieve high binding capacity of the Influenza virus per mL of monolithic support.

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During recombinant adeno associated virus (rAAV) downstream processing, a large amount of host-cell and product related impurities needs to be removed from the product. Succesful process on laboratory scale, such as Cesium chloride purification, lacks scalability when the process is due to be transfered to larger industrial scale. The aim of the study was to develop robust, fast and effective rAAV virus purification platform, which can be used for several AAV serotypes with various inserts. Lysed harvest and supernatant of rAAV9 were first captured and concentrated on CIMmultus™ OH column, followed by intermediate step on CIMmultus™ SO3 column and further polishing on CIMmultus™ QA column. Derived purity of industrial scale monolith purification product was compared to laboratory scale purification.

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2017

New vaccines against Influenza A are required each year to keep up with the most virulent evolving strains. This highlights a need for predictive analytical tools that can aid purification process development and validation. Rapid and reliable quantification of Influenza A virus is therefore of the utmost importance for enabling good yields and controlling the costs of the downstream processing. Here we demonstrate the ability of monolithic chromatography media to produce process predictive profiles that can document ability to remove impurities and obtain high product recoveries.

CIMac™ Analytical Columns are short bed high performance monolithic columns offering all the advantages of CIM® monolithic technology. Their small volume and short column length allow the operation at high volumetric flow rates enabling to receive the information about the product quantity and purity in just a few minutes. Hence, the CIMac™ Analytical Columns can be effectively used for the in-process and final control of various samples from different purification process steps.

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2016

Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors of various serotypes are considered to have high potential for gene therapy applications. Currently, manufacturing of AAV vectors faces the challenge of co-production of incompletely formed particles lacking a recombinant viral genome. Empty capsids increase the dose of total AAV administered for efficient transduction and are thought to cause unwanted immunological reactions against the virus.Removal of empty capsids during manufacturing, as well as analysis of empty/full AAV particle content is therefore a critical requirement for any AAV production process. This poster demonstrates how CIMmultus™ QA monolithic columns can be used to remove empty AAV capsids from the product chromatographically in a single step.

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2014

Determining the concentration of viruses is a crucial step in any production process. The most commonly used methods for virus quantification are either based on the infectivity of the virus (plaque assay, TCID50) determination of their genomic material (qPCR), or protein content (SRID, ELISA) and are very cumbersome and time consuming. HPLC analytical methods represent a fast alternative to these assays since they provide information on the virus content and purity in a matter of minutes. Due to the structural properties of the monolithic supports, monolithic analytical columns offer a great advantage over particle based HPLC columns in terms of time and their ability to separate large biomolecules, like viruses, VLPs, pDNA.

In this poster the performance of the CIMac™ Adeno Analytical Column – a monolith based anion exchange column, designed for fast and reproducible analyses of adenoviruses was evaluated. CIMac Adeno column can be used for designing a fast finger printing method that is applicable for monitoring the DSP production process of adenoviruses. Once the basic analytical parameters like linearity and sensitivity are determined using a purified adenoviral standard, the metod can be applied for quantitative determination of adenoviruses.

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