Towards automation in protein digestion: Development of a monolithic trypsin immobilized reactor for highly efficient on-line digestion and analysis
Marina Naldi, Urh Černigoj, Ales Štrancar, Manuela Bartolini
Reducing experimental variability, limiting contamination and increasing automation are essential goals in the development of reliable analytical platforms for mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. In this work novel trypsin-based monolithic immobilized enzyme reactors (tryp-IMERs), obtained by covalent immobilization on convective interaction media (CIMac™) analytical columns (5 mm×5.2 mm I.D.), were developed. Notwithstanding the small dimensions, column format allowed the insertion in common high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) systems, thus avoiding the use of expensive micro- or nano-platforms. Monolith pore diameter and surface chemistry were optimized to achieve high digestion efficiency even with high molecular weight proteins and to avoid protein/peptide adsorption, peak broadening and sample loss. A full characterization of the tryp-IMERs was undertaken to select the best protocol for preparation and type of trypsin. Optimization of the operational and storage conditions was carried out by an off-line approach. On-line studies were performed by setting a multidimensional analytical platform, which included the tryp-IMER, a trapping column, an analytical C4 column and a high resolution hybrid mass spectrometer (ESI-Q-TOF). In the optimized conditions rapid protein digestion (90 ± 9 s), high protein coverage (≥60%) and high score values were achieved for five selected sample proteins (cytochrome c, myoglobin and albumins from different sources) differing in molecular size, isoelectric point and accessibility to cleavage sites as well as for a protein mixture of 200 ng. The best performing tryp-IMERs showed high sensitivity down to the pmole level. The platform also resulted suitable for the analysis of high-molecular weight proteins such as a pool of human immunoglobulins G (hIgG) and for the high molecular weight fraction of human plasma proteins, which were digested in less than two minutes to an extent similar to that achieved by overnight incubation in a classical in solution protocol. Finally, underestimated key procedural issues were also highlighted during the study. Such aspects are of general interest both for tryp-IMER users and tryp-IMER developers.