2018

Tsutomu Arakawa, Pete Gagnon

Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 107 (2018) 2297-2305

The concept of cosolvent exclusion was developed by a group of Timasheff's laboratory in 1970-1990 and is currently used widely to explain the effects of a variety of cosolvents on the stability and solubility of macromolecules. Not surprisingly, these concepts have had substantial influence in the fields of formulation, protein folding and unfolding, but they have perhaps more surprisingly found their way into the field of chromatography. A variety of excluded cosolvents have been used to enhance binding and resolution of proteins and other macromolecules in ion exchange, hydroxyapatite, affinity, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. These cosolvents include salting-out salts, amino acids and polymers, and frequently polyethylene glycol (PEG). A new mode of chromatography, termed “steric exclusion chromatography,” was recently introduced. It employs hydroxylated solid phase surfaces. Steric exclusion of the PEG stabilizes the association of macromolecules with the solid phase. Elution is achieved by reducing the PEG concentration. Magnetic particles are also used in this chromatography. This review summarizes the concepts of preferential cosolvent exclusion and its applications in column chromatography.

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2017

V.Rajamanickam, D.Wurm, C.Slouka, C.Herwig, O.Spadiut

Anal Bioanal Chem (2016)

The bacterium Escherichia coli is a well-studied recombinant host organism with a plethora of applications in biotechnology. Highly valuable biopharmaceuticals, such as antibody fragments and growth factors, are currently being produced in E. coli. However, the high metabolic burden during recombinant protein production can lead to cell death, consequent lysis, and undesired product loss. Thus, fast and precise analyzers to monitor E. coli bioprocesses and to retrieve key process information, such as the optimal time point of harvest, are needed. However, such reliable monitoring tools are still scarce to date. In this study, we cultivated an E. coli strain producing a recombinant single-chain antibody fragment in the cytoplasm. In bioreactor cultivations, we purposely triggered cell lysis by pH ramps. We developed a novel toolbox using UV chromatograms as fingerprints and chemometric techniques to monitor these lysis events and used flow cytometry (FCM) as reference method to quantify viability offline. Summarizing, we were able to show that a novel toolbox comprising HPLC chromatogram fingerprinting and data science tools allowed the identification of E. coli lysis in a fast and reliable manner. We are convinced that this toolbox will not only facilitate E. coli bioprocess monitoring but will also allow enhanced process control in the future

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Sebastijan Peljhan, Tina Jakop, Dunja Šček, Vid Skvarča, Blaž Goričar, Romina Žabar, Nina Mencin. Electrophoresis 2017 July 20

The plasma-derived IgG used either for diagnostic purpose or intravenous application (in form of IVIG) in various medical therapies is certainly gaining more and more attention on annual basis. Different manufacturing processes are used to isolate immunoglobulins from human plasma. However, a quest for alternative paths in IgG isolation not only requires development of the most efficient isolation process, but also a rapid and reliable analytics to track the purification. Fast and reliable fingerprint based method for characterization of IgG prepared from Cohn I+II+III paste is presented in this paper. The fingerprint method bases on partial separation of proteins in linear gradient on CIMacTM quaternary amine, strong anion exchange group (QA) 0.1 mL column. Partial separation of proteins does not allow simple quantitative analysis of the samples during the IgG isolation from Cohn I+II+III fraction paste, but very accurate qualitative information about the composition of the sample can be obtained in less than 5 min. From the differences in the chromatograms of various samples, the ratio between IgG and impurities in each sample can be easily assessed. The method is suitable for input material control, in-line monitoring of the downstream processing, final control of the products, as well as in stability studies and enables taking fast and accurate decisions during fractionation process.

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Antonio M. Munoz, Paul Yourik, Vaishnavi Rajagopal, Jagpreet S. Nanda, Jon R. Lorsch, Sarah E. Walker

RNA Biology, 2017, VOL. 14, NO. 2, 188–196

In vitro studies of translation provide critical mechanistic details, yet purification of large amounts of highly active eukaryotic ribosomes remains a challenge for biochemists and structural biologists. Here, we present an optimized method for preparation of highly active yeast ribosomes that could easily be adapted for purification of ribosomes from other species. The use of a nitrogen mill for cell lysis coupled with chromatographic purification of the ribosomes results in 10-fold-increased yield and less variability compared with the traditional approach, which relies on sedimentation through sucrose cushions. We demonstrate that these ribosomes are equivalent to those made using the traditional method in a host of in vitro assays, and that utilization of this new method will consistently produce high yields of active yeast ribosomes.

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2015

D. Buzzi, A. Štrancar

Chimica Oggi-Chemistry Today; Vol 33(1) January/February 2015

The importance of the monitoring of a process all along its steps by means of PAT has been defined by FDA in 2002. How can be defined the product quality and what are the parameters that should be checked by means of different analysis techniques, being focused in particular on the application of high pressure liquid chromatography techniques (HPLC) as high value tool for the process monitoring. From the first introduction of Process Analytical Technology to the "state of the art": how can be PAT implemented in order to ensure the final product quality.

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P. Kramberger, U. Lidija, A. Štrancar
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 11:4 (2015) 1010-1021

Downstream processing of nanoplexes (viruses, virus-like particles, bacteriophages) is characterized by complexity of the starting material, number of purification methods to choose from, regulations that are setting the frame for the final product and analytical methods for upstream and downstream monitoring. This review gives an overview on the nanoplex downstream challenges and chromatography based analytical methods for efficient monitoring of the nanoplex production.

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A. G. Lopes

FBP-461, Food and Bioproducts Processing (2014)

As the biopharmaceutical industry matures, the trend towards increased flexibility and productivity, faster time tomarket and greater profitability are driving the replacement of traditional stainless steel equipment by single-use technology (SUT). The use of SUT in the biopharmaceutical industry can significantly impact the manufacturing process efficiency by reducing capital costs, improving plant flexibility, reducing start-up times and costs, and elim-inating both non-value added process steps and the risk of cross-contamination. In addition it significantly reduces process liquid waste, labour costs and on-site quality and validation requirements. This paper reviews the current status of the technology and the impact of SUT in the biopharmaceutical industry, with the aim of identifying the challenges and limitations that still need to be addressed for further adoption of these technologies. Even tough SUT has a multitude of systems available, its components and assemblies have little standardisation as well as alack of harmonised tests and procedures among suppliers, with an array of guidelines from a variety of sourcesand no critical limits have been established. In addition, the use of SUT has new validation requirements such as leachables and extractables, suppliers’ qualification and SUT lot-to-lot variability. The lack of expertise in these areas and the new training requirements when using SUT also need to be addressed. To date the majority of the avail-able literature regarding SUT is found in trade journals where typically suppliers are the main contributors. There is still a lack of engagement of the academic community, which contributes to very limited scientific proof from independent peer-reviewed research to support performance of SUT. This is particularly the case during operation and integrity testing of SUT, during for example on-site testing, transport and disposal. Another area where no work has been undertaken concerns conceptual approaches for facility clean-room requirement and appropriate layout design using SUT. Investment in novel technologies, research, standardisation and training is paramount for further development and implementation of SUTs across all sectors of the biopharmaceutical industry.

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2013

A. A. Shukla, U. Gottschalk

Trends in Biotechnology (2012) 1-8

The manufacture of protein biopharmaceuticals is conducted under current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) and involves multiple unit operations for upstream production and downstream purification. Until recently, production facilities relied on the use of relatively inflexible, hard-piped equipment including large stainless steel bioreactors and tanks to hold product intermediates and buffers. However, there is an increasing trend towards the adoption of single-use technologies across the manufacturing process. Technical advances have now made an end-to-end single-use manufacturing facility possible, but several aspects of single-use technology require further improvement and are continually evolving. This article provides a perspective on the current state-of-the-art in single-use technologies and highlights trends that will improve performance and increase the market penetration of disposable manufacturing in the future.

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M. Li, Y. X. Qiu

Vaccine 31 (2013) 1264-1267

An effective downstream bio-processing of vaccine products requires complete chemical knowledge of the contaminants that may arise from a given vector expression system. Whether the vaccine is made from the traditional egg-based or the new cell-cultured process, it is the expression system that determines the types of impurities that need to be identified and removed from the vaccine product.

There are mechanical and chemical factors that can either reduce the yield or render a vaccine product to be irreversibly inactive. The choice of equipment and solvents is therefore important in minimizing product loss, and for maintaining an efficient and optimized manufacturing process.

The frequent out-of-specification, irreproducible data and inefficiency in the manufacturing of biologics were the basis for FDA to propose the “cGMP for the 21st Century” initiative in the year of 2000. Effective 2004, the concept of quality by design (QbD) has been imposed in the manufacturing of biologics. To facilitate the implementation of QbD FDA has encouraged the use of process analytical technology (PAT). Further, FDA believes that an optimized manufacturing scheme requires one to identify and to control the variables that can negatively affect the yield and quality of the desired product, and PAT can reveal wrongful data and alert the operator for immediate correction during processing.

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E. A. Ponomareva, M. V. Volokitina, D. O. Vinokhodov, E. G. Vlakh, T. B. Tennikova

Anal Bioanal Chem (2013) 405:2195–2206

Immobilized enzyme reactors (IMERs) produced by the covalent attachment of ribonuclease A to macroporous
methacrylate-based monolithic supports using different experimental approaches are discussed and compared. Enzyme immobilization was carried out by direct covalent binding, as well as through attachment via a polymer spacer. The kinetic properties of an IMER operating in either recirculation mode or zonal elution mode were studied. Additionally, the effect of flow rate on the bioconversion efficiency of each IMER sample was examined.

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M. V. Volokitina, E. G. Vlakh, G. A. Platonova, D. O. Vinokhodov, T. B. Tennikova
J. Sep. Sci. 2013, 36, 2793-2805

Two ribonuclease A bioreactors based on lab-made macroporous monolithic columns and intended for polynucleotide degradation were prepared using in situ free-radical polymerization. Different methods of enzyme immobilization were applied. In the first case, the biocatalyst molecule was attached to the solid surface via direct covalent binding, while in the second bioreactor the flexible-chain synthetic polymer was used as an intermediate spacer. The effect of temperature, substrate flow rate, and loaded sample volume on the biocatalytic efficiency of the immobilized enzyme was examined. The kinetic parameters of the enzymatic degradation of synthetic polycytidylic acid were calculated and compared to those found for hydrolysis with soluble ribonuclease A. The monitoring of substrate splitting was carried out by means of fast anion-exchange HPLC on an ultra-short monolithic column (disk) using off- and on-line analytical approaches.

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E. Maksimova, E. Vlakh, E. Sinitsyna, T. Tennikova
J. Sep. Sci. 2013, 36, 3741–3749

Ultrashort monolithic columns (disks) were thoroughly studied as efficient stationary phases for precipitation–dissolution chromatography of synthetic polymers. Gradient elution mode was applied in all chromatographic runs. The mixtures of different flexible chain homopolymers, such as polystyrenes, poly(methyl methacrylates), and poly(tert-butylmethacrylates) were separated according to their molecular weights on both commercial poly(styrene-co divinylbenzene).
disks (12 id × 3 mm and 5 × 5 mm) and lab-made monolithic columns (4.6 id × 50 mm) filled with supports of different hydrophobicity. The experimental conditions were optimized to reach fast and highly efficient separation. It was observed that, similar to the separation of monoliths of other classes of (macro)molecules (proteins, DNA, oligonucleotides), the length of column did not affect the peak resolution.
A comparison of the retention properties of the poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) diskshaped monoliths with those based on poly(lauryl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate), poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate), and poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) supports demonstrated the obvious effect of surface chemistry on the resolution factor. Additionally, the results of the discussed chromatographic mode on the fast determination of the molecular weights of homopolymers used in this study were compared to those established by SEC on columns packed with sorbent beads of a similar nature to the monoliths.

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Roy N D‘Souza, Ana M Azevedo, M Raquel Aires-Barros, Nika Lendero Krajnc, Petra Kramberger, Maria Laura Carbajal, Mariano Grasselli, Roland Meyer & Marcelo Fernández-Lahore

Vol. 1, No. 5, Pharmaceutical Bioprocessing (2013)

Downstream processing is currently the major bottleneck for bioproduct generation. In contrast to the advances in fermentation processes, the tools used for downstream processes have struggled to keep pace in the last 20 years. Purification bottlenecks are quite serious, as these processes can account for up to 80% of the total production cost. Coupled with the emergence of new classes of bioproducts, for example, virus-like particles or plasmidic DNA, this has created a great need for superior alternatives. In this review, improved downstream technologies, including aqueous two-phase systems, expanded bed adsorption chromatography, convective flow systems, and fibre-based adsorbent systems, have been discussed. These adaptive methods are more suited to the burgeoning downstream processing needs of the future, enabling the cost-efficient production of new classes biomaterials with a high degree of purity, and thereby hold the promise to become indispensable tools in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

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2012

J. Lee, H. T. Gan, S. M. Abdul Latiff , C. Chuah, W. Y. Lee, Y.-S. Yang, B. Loo, S. K. Ng, P. Gagnon

Journal of Chromatography A, 1270 (2012) 162-170

We introduce a chromatography method for purification of large proteins and viruses that works by capturing them at a non-reactive hydrophilic surface by their mutual steric exclusion of polyethylene glycol (PEG). No direct chemical interaction between the surface and the target species is required. We refer to the technique as steric exclusion chromatography. Hydroxyl-substituted polymethacrylate monoliths provide a hydrophilic surface and support convective mass transport that is unaffected by the viscosity of the PEG. Elution is achieved by reducing PEG concentration. Selectivity correlates with molecular size, with larger species retained more strongly than smaller species. Retention increases with PEG size and concentration. Salts weaken retention in proportion to their concentration and Hofmeister ranking. Retention is enhanced near the isoelectric point of the target species. Virus binding capacity was measured at 9.9 × 1012 plaque forming units per mL of monolith. 99.8% of host cell proteins and 93% of DNA were eliminated. Mass recovery exceeded 90%. IgM capacity was greater than 60 mg/mL. 95% of host cell proteins were eliminated from IgM produced in protein-free media, and mass recovery was up to 90%. Bioactivity was fully conserved by both viruses and antibodies. Process time ranged from less than 30 min to 2 h depending on the product concentration in the feed stream.

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P. Gagnon

Journal of Chromatography A, 1221 (2012) 57-70(2012) 57-70

This article reviews technology trends in antibody purification. Section 1 discusses non-chromatography methods, including precipitation, liquid–liquid extraction, and high performance tangential flow filtration. The second addresses chromatography methods. It begins with discussion of fluidized and fixed bed formats. It continues with stationary phase architecture: diffusive particles, perfusive particles, membranes and monoliths. The remainder of the section reviews recent innovations in size exclusion, anion exchange, cation exchange, hydrophobic interaction, immobilized metal affinity, mixed-mode, and bioaffinity chromatography. Section 3 addresses an emerging trend of formulating process buffers to prevent or correct anomalies in the antibodies being purified. Methods are discussed for preventing aggregate formation, dissociating antibody-contaminant complexes, restoring native antibody from aggregates, and conserving or restoring native disulfide pairing.

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M. Žorž

ChemieXtra 3/2012 pp 30-33

BIA Separations produziert und vertreibt kurze monolithischen Chromatografiesäulen, die auf der CIM-Convective Interaction Media-Technologie basieren. CIM-Säulen eignen sich vor allem für die Reinigung von grossen Biomolekülen wie etwa Viren (virale Vektoren und Impfstoffe), DNA (Plasmid-DNA) und grössere Proteine (Immunglobuline G und M, pegylierte Proteine). Sie weisen einzigartige Eigenschaften in Bezug auf operative Flussraten, Adsorptionsfähigkeit und Trennung grosser Biomoleküle auf. Die Säulen werden in Forschung, Labor, Pilot- und industriellen Produktionsstufen eingesetzt und sind extrem einfach zu handhaben.

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R. Milačič, D. Ajlec, T. Zuliani, D. Žigon, J. Ščančar

Talanta 101 (2012) 203-210

In human milk zinc (Zn) is bound to proteins and low molecular mass (LMM) ligands. Numerous investigations demonstrated that Zn bioavailability in human milk is for infant much higher than in cow's milk. It was presumed that in the LMM human milk fraction highly bioavailable Zn-citrate prevails. However, literature data are controversial regarding the amount of Zn-citrate in human milk since analytical procedures reported were not quantitative. So, complex investigation was carried out to develop analytical method for quantitative determination of this biologically important molecule. Studies were performed within the pH range 5–7 by the use of synthetic solutions of Zn-citrate prepared in HEPES, MOPS and MES buffers. Zn-citrate was separated on weak anion-exchange convective interaction media (CIM) diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) monolithic chromatographic column using NH4NO3 as an eluent. Separated Zn species were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Quantitative separation of Zn-citrate complexes ([Zn(Cit)]- and [Zn(Cit)2]4-; column recoveries 94–102%) and good repeatability and reproducibility of results with relative standard deviation (RSD±3.0%) were obtained. In fractions under the chromatographic peaks Zn-binding ligand was identified by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS-MS). Limits of detection (LOD) for determination of Zn-citrate species by CIM DEAE-FAAS and CIM DEAE-ICP-MS were 0.01 μg Zn mL-1 and 0.0005 μg Zn mL-1, respectively. Both techniques were sensitive enough for quantification of Zn-citrate in human milk. Results demonstrated that about 23% of total Zn was present in the LMM milk fraction and that LMM-Zn corresponded to Zn-citrate. The developed speciation method represents a reliable analytical tool for investigation of the percentage and the amount of Zn-citrate in human milk.

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2011

S. H. Lubbad, M. R. Buchmeiser

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2362-2367

Ring-opening metathesis polymerization- (ROMP) derived monoliths were prepared from 5-norborn-2-enemethyl bromide (NBE-CH2Br) and tris(5-norborn-2-enemethoxy)methylsilane ((NBE-CH2O)3SiCH3) within the confines of surface-silanized borosilicate columns (100 × 3 mm I.D.), applying Grubbs’ first generation benzylidene-type catalyst [RuCl2(PCy3)2(CHPh)]. Monoliths were converted into weak anion exchangers via reaction with diethyl amine. The resulting monolithic anion exchangers demonstrated a very good potential for the anion-exchange separation of nucleic acids applying a phosphate buffer (0.05 mol/L, pH 7) and NaCl (1.0 mol/L) as a gradient former. Fast and efficient separations, indicated by sharp and highly symmetric analyte peaks, were established. Except for the 267 and 298 base pair fragments, the eleven fragments of a ds-pUC18 DNA Hae III digest were baseline separated within ∼8 min. Nineteen fragments of a ds-pBR322 Hae III digest were separated within ∼12 min. There, only the 192 and 213 base pair fragments and the 458, 504 and 540 base pair fragments coeluted. A ds-pUC18 DNA Hae III digest was used as a control analyte in evaluating the influence of organic additives on the mobile phase such as methanol and acetonitrile on nucleic acid separation. Methanol, and even better, acetonitrile improved the separation efficiency and shortened the analysis time.

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S. Yamamoto, T. Okada, M. Abe, N. Yoshimoto

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2460-2466

The peak spreading of DNAs of various sizes [12-mer, 20-mer, 50-mer and 95-mer poly(T)] in linear gradient elution (LGE) chromatography with a thin monolithic disk was investigated by using our method developed for determining HETP in LGE. Electrostatic interaction-based chromatography mode (ion-exchange chromatography, IEC) was used. Polymer-based monolithic disks of two different sizes (12 mm diameter, 3 mm thickness and 0.34 mL; 5.2 mm diameter, 4.95 mm thickness and 0.105 mL) having anion-exchange groups were employed. For comparison, a 15-μm porous bead IEC column (Resource Q, 6.4 mm diameter, 30 mm height and 0.97 mL) was also used. The peak width did not change with the flow velocity for the monolithic disks where as it became wider with increasing velocity. For the monolithic disks the peak width normalized with the column bed volume was well-correlated with the distribution coefficient at the peak position KR. HETP values were constant (ca. 0.003–0.005 cm) when KR > 5. Much higher HETP values which are flow-rate dependent were obtained for the porous bead chromatography. It is possible to obtain 50–100 plates for the 3 mm monolithic disk. This results in very sharp elution peaks (standard deviation/bed volume = 0.15) even for stepwise elution chromatography, where the peak width is similar to that for LGE of a very steep gradient slope.

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Z. Jiang, N. W. Smith, Z. Liu

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2350-2361

Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) has experienced increasing attention in recent years. Much research has been carried out in the area of HILIC separation mechanisms, column techniques and applications. Because of their good permeability, low resistance to mass transfer and easy preparation within capillaries, hydrophilic monolithic columns represent a trend among novel HILIC column techniques. This review attempts to present an overview of the preparation and applications of HILIC monolithic columns carried out in the past decade. The separation mechanism of various hydrophilic monolithic stationary phases is also reviewed.

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