2009

E.G. Vlakh, T.B. Tennikova

Journal of Chromatography A, 1216 (2009) 2637-2650

Monolithic columns were introduced in the early 1990s and have become increasingly popular as efficient stationary phases for most of the important chromatographic separation modes. Monoliths are functionally distinct from porous particle-based media in their reliance on convective mass transport. This makes resolution and capacity independent of flow rate. Monoliths also lack a void volume. This eliminates eddy dispersion and permits high-resolution separations with extremely short flow paths. The analytical value of these features is the subject of recent reviews. Nowadays, among other types of rigid macroporous monoliths, the polymethacrylate-based materials are the largest and most examined class of these sorbents. In this review, the applications of polymethacrylate-based monolithic columns are summarized for the separation, purification and analysis of low and high molecular mass compounds in the different HPLC formats, including micro- and large-scale HPLC modes.

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P. Brne, Y.-P. Lim, A. Podgornik, M. Barut, B. Pihlar, A. Štrancar

Journal of Chromatography A, 1216 (2009) 2658-2663

Convective interaction media (CIM; BIA Separations) monoliths are attractive stationary phases for use in affinity chromatography because they enable fast affinity binding, which is a consequence of convectively enhanced mass transport. This work focuses on the development of novel CIM hydrazide (HZ) monoliths for the oriented immobilization of antibodies. Adipic acid dihydrazide (AADH) was covalently bound to CIM epoxy monoliths to gain hydrazide groups on the monolith surface. Two different antibodies were afterwards immobilized to hydrazide functionalized monolithic columns and prepared columns were tested for their selectivity. One column was further tested for the dynamic binding capacity.

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J. Krenkova, A. Gargano, N. A. Lacher, J. M. Schneiderheinze, F. Švec

Journal of Chromatography A, 1216 (2009) 6824–6830

Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene methacrylate) monoliths have been prepared in 100 μm i.d. capillaries and their epoxy groups hydrolyzed to obtain poly(2,3-dihydroxypropyl methacrylate-co-ethylene methacrylate) matrix. These polymers were then photografted in a single step with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid and acrylic acid to afford stationary phases for a strong and a weak cation exchange chromatography, respectively. Alternatively, poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate was used for grafting in the first step in order to enhance hydrophilicity of the support followed by photografting with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid or acrylic acid in the second step. These new columns were used for the separation of proteins and peptides. A mixture of ovalbumin, α-chymotrypsinogen, cytochrome c, ribonuclease A and lysozyme was used to assess the chromatographic performance for large molecules while a cytochrome c digest served as a model mixture of peptides. All tested columns featured excellent mass transfer as demonstrated with very steep breakthrough curves. The highest binding capacities were found for columns prepared using the two step functionalization. Columns with sulfonic acid functionalities adsorbed up to 21.5 mg/mL lysozyme while the capacity of the weak cation exchange column functionalized with acrylic acid was 29.2 mg/mL.

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L. Urbas, P. Brne, B. Gabor, M. Barut, M. Strlič, T. Čerk Petrič, A. Štrancar

Joural of Chromatography A, 1216 (2009) 2689-2694

Human serum albumin (HSA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) represent over 75% of all proteins present in human plasma. These high-abundance proteins prevent the detection of low-abundance proteins which are potential markers for various diseases. The depletion of HSA and IgG is therefore essential for further proteome analysis. In this paper we describe the optimization of conditions for selective depletion of HSA and IgG using affinity and pseudo-affinity chromatography. A BIA Separations CIM (convective interaction media) Protein G disk was applied for the removal of IgG and the Mimetic Blue SA A6XL stationary phase for the removal of HSA. The binding and the elution buffer for CIM Protein G disk were chosen on the basis of the peak shape. The dynamic binding capacity was determined. It was shown to be dependent on the buffer system used and independent of the flow rate and of the concentration of IgG. Beside the binding capacity for the IgG standard, the binding capacity was also determined for IgG in human plasma. The Mimetic Blue SA A6XL column was characterized using human plasma. The selectivity of the depletion was dependent on the amount of human plasma that was loaded on the column. After the conditions on both supports had been optimized, the Mimetic Blue SA A6XL stationary phase was combined with the CIM Protein G disk in order to simultaneously deplete samples of human plasma. A centrifuge spin column that enables the removal of IgG and HSA from 20 μL of human plasma was designed. The results of the depletion were examined using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

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A. Tscheliessnig, D. Ong, J. Lee, S. Pan, G. Satianegara, K. Schriebl, A. Choo, A. Jungbauer

Journal of Chromatography A, 1216 (2009) 7851–7864

A two-step purification strategy comprising of polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and anion-exchange chromatography was developed for a panel of monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM) (pI 5.5–7.7) produced from hybridoma cultures. PEG precipitation was optimized with regards to concentration, pH and mixing. For anion-exchange chromatography, different resins were screened of which Fractogel EMD, a polymer grafted porous resin had the highest capacity. Despite its significantly slower mass transfer, the binding capacity was still higher compared to a convection driven resin (monolith). This purification strategy was successfully demonstrated for all 9 IgMs in the panel. In small scale most antibodies could be purified to >95% purity with the exception of two which gave a lower final purity (46% and 85%). The yield was dependent on the different antibodies ranging from 28% to 84%. Further improvement of recovery and purity was obtained by the digestion of DNA present in the hybridoma supernatant using an endonuclease, benzonase. So far this strategy has been applied for the purification of up to 2 l hybridoma supernatants.

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K. Ralla, F. Anton, T. Scheper, C. Kasper

Journal of Chromatography A, 1216 (2009) 2671-2675

The aim of this study was to develop a chromatographic method, as a substitute for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, for the rapid and simultaneous detection of IgG, insulin, and transferrin present in a cell culture medium. Conjoint liquid chromatography (conjoint LC) using monolithic disks was applied for this purpose. An anion-exchange disk was combined with a Protein G affinity disk in a preparative HPLC system. IgG bound to the Protein G disk, whereas transferrin and insulin were captured on the quaternary ammonium (QA) disk. Using this method, it was possible to simultaneously determine the concentrations of IgG, transferrin, and insulin in the cell culture medium. Thus, conjoint LC could be used for the rapid and simultaneous detection of different proteins present in a cell culture medium.

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A. Tscheliessnig, A. Jungbauer

Journal of Chromatography A, 1216 (2009) 2676-2682

High-performance monolith affinity chromatography employing protein A resins has been introduced previously for the fast purification of IgG from different sources. Here we describe the design and evaluation of a fast and specific method for quantitation of IgG from purified samples as well as crude supernatant from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We used a commercially available affinity monolith with protein A as affinity ligand (CIM protein A HLD disk). Interferences of CHO host cell proteins with the quantitation of IgG from CHO supernatant were eliminated by a careful choice of the equilibration buffer. With this method developed, it is possible to quantify IgG within 5 min in a concentration range of 23–250 μg/ml. The calibration range of the method could be extended from 4 to 1000 μg/ml by adjusting the injection volume. The method was successfully validated by measuring the low limit of detection and quantification, inter- and intra-day precision and selectivity.

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L. Urbas, P. Brne, B. Gabo, M. Barut, M. Strlič, T. Čerk Petrič, A. Štrancar

Journal of Chromatography A, 1216 (2009) 2689–2694

Human serum albumin (HSA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) represent over 75% of all proteins present in human plasma. These high-abundance proteins prevent the detection of low-abundance proteins which are potential markers for various diseases. The depletion of HSA and IgG is therefore essential for further proteome analysis. In this paper we describe the optimization of conditions for selective depletion of HSA and IgG using affinity and pseudo-affinity chromatography. A BIA Separations CIM (convective interaction media) Protein G disk was applied for the removal of IgG and the Mimetic Blue SA A6XL stationary phase for the removal of HSA. The binding and the elution buffer for CIM Protein G disk were chosen on the basis of the peak shape. The dynamic binding capacity was determined. It was shown to be dependent on the buffer system used and independent of the flow rate and of the concentration of IgG. Beside the binding capacity for the IgG standard, the binding capacity was also determined for IgG in human plasma. The Mimetic Blue SA A6XL column was characterized using human plasma. The selectivity of the depletion was dependent on the amount of human plasma that was loaded on the column. After the conditions on both supports had been optimized, the Mimetic Blue SA A6XL stationary phase was combined with the CIM Protein G disk in order to simultaneously deplete samples of human plasma. A centrifuge spin column that enables the removal of IgG and HSA from 20 μL of human plasma was designed. The results of the depletion were examined using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

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A. Tscheliessnig, A. Jungbauer

Journal of Chromatography A, 1216 (2009) 2676–2682

High-performance monolith affinity chromatography employing protein A resins has been introduced previously for the fast purification of IgG from different sources. Here we describe the design and evaluation of a fast and specific method for quantitation of IgG from purified samples as well as crude supernatant from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We used a commercially available affinity monolith with protein A as affinity ligand (CIM protein A HLD disk). Interferences of CHO host cell proteins with the quantitation of IgG from CHO supernatant were eliminated by a careful choice of the equilibration buffer. With this method developed, it is possible to quantify IgG within 5 min in a concentration range of 23–250 μg/ml. The calibration range of the method could be extended from 4 to 1000 μg/ml by adjusting the injection volume. The method was successfully validated by measuring the low limit of detection and quantification, inter- and intra-day precision and selectivity.

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J. L. Ammerman, J. H. Aldstadt III

Microchim Acta (2009) 164:185-196

We describe the development and optimization of a sensitive and selective screening method for the measurement of trace levels of microcystins in surface waters. Several sample preparation techniques were compared, including solid-phase microextraction (SPME), particle-based solid-phase extraction (SPE), and monolith-based SPE. A flow-injection (FI) based approach employing a reversed-phase monolithic SPE column was found to be optimal. Quantification was performed by directly interfacing the FI-based SPE system to an electrospray ionization-mass spectrometer (ESI-MS). To more safely simulate peptidyl toxins such as the microcystins, a model peptide (i.e., angiotensin II) was used for method optimization. Sample loading flow rate and volume, eluent composition, and elution flow rate were optimized. Sample throughput was six samples per hour, a detection limit of 1.31 ng angiotensin II was demonstrated for a linear dynamic range from 1–1,000 ng and 3.4% relative standard deviation (n = 4, 100 ng sample). Sample volumes up to 1,000 ml of surface water could be loaded onto the monolithic SPE disk without exceeding the sorbent’s capacity. Unlike conventional particle-based SPE methods, the monolithic SPE disk does not need to be replaced between samples and could be used indefinitely. The FI-based SPE-ESI-MS method was successfully applied to the determination of microcystin-LR, the most common of the microcystins, in environmental samples and was demonstrated for the direct monitoring of chlorinated drinking water, with trends tracked over a period of eight months.

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J. Krenkova, A. Gargano, N. A. Lacher, J. M. Schneiderheinze, F. Svec

Journal of Chromatography A, 1216 (2009) 6824–6830

Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene methacrylate) monoliths have been prepared in 100 μm i.d. capillaries and their epoxy groups hydrolyzed to obtain poly(2,3-dihydroxypropyl methacrylate-co-ethylene methacrylate) matrix. These polymers were then photografted in a single step with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid and acrylic acid to afford stationary phases for a strong and a weak cation exchange chromatography, respectively. Alternatively, poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate was used for grafting in the first step in order to enhance hydrophilicity of the support followed by photografting with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid or acrylic acid in the second step. These new columns were used for the separation of proteins and peptides. A mixture of ovalbumin, α-chymotrypsinogen, cytochrome c, ribonuclease A and lysozyme was used to assess the chromatographic performance for large molecules while a cytochrome c digest served as a model mixture of peptides. All tested columns featured excellent mass transfer as demonstrated with very steep breakthrough curves. The highest binding capacities were found for columns prepared using the two step functionalization. Columns with sulfonic acid functionalities adsorbed up to 21.5 mg/mL lysozyme while the capacity of the weak cation exchange column functionalized with acrylic acid was 29.2 mg/mL.

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S. Yamamoto, M. Nakamura, C. Tarmann, A. Jungbauer

Journal of Chromatography A 1216 (2009) 2616-2620

Our previous study has shown that there is a good correlation between the number of charges of DNA (from trimer to 50-mer) and the number of binding sites B in electrostatic interaction chromatography (ion-exchange chromatography, IEC). It was also found that high salt (NaCl) concentration is needed to elute large DNAs (>0.6 M). In this paper we further performed experiments with large DNAs (up to 95-mer polyT and polyA) and charged liposome particles of different sizes (ca. 30, 50 and 100 nm) with a monolithic anion-exchange disk in order to understand the binding and elution mechanism of very large charged biomolecules or particles. The peak salt (NaCl) concentration increased with increasing DNA length. However, above 50-mer DNAs the value did not increase significantly with DNA length (ca. 0.65–0.70 M). For liposome particles of different sizes the peak salt concentration (ca. 0.62 M) was similar and slightly lower than that for large DNAs (ca. 0.65–0.70 M). The binding site values (ca. 25–30) are smaller than those for large DNAs. When arginine was used as a mobile phase modulator, the elution position of polyA and polyT became very close whereas in NaCl gradient elution polyT appeared after polyA eluted. This was mainly due to suppression of hydrophobic interaction by arginine.

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K. Kovač, I. Gutierrez-Aguirre, M. Banjac, M. Peterka, M. Poljšak-Prijatelj, M. Ravnikar, J. Zimšek Mijovski, A. C. Schultze, P. Raspor

Journal of Virological Methods 162 (2009) 272–275

Human enteric viruses are detected frequently in various types of environmental water samples, such as irrigation water, wastewater, recreational water, ground or subsurface water and even drinking water, constituting a primary source of gastroenteritis or hepatitis outbreaks. Only a few, but still infective number of viral particles are normally present in water samples, therefore an efficient virus concentration procedure is essential prior to molecular detection of the viral nucleic acid. In this study, a novel chromatographic technology, Convective Interaction Media® (CIM) monolithic supports, were optimized and applied to the concentration of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and feline calicivirus (FCV), a surrogate of norovirus (NoV), from water samples. Two-step real-time RT-qPCR was used for quantitation of the virus concentration in the chromatographic fractions. Positively charged CIM QA (quaternary amine) monolithic columns were used for binding of HAV and FCV present in previously inoculated 1.5 l bottled water samples. Column bound viruses were eluted from the monolith using 1 M NaCl to a final volume of 15 ml. Elution volume was concentrated further by ultracentrifugation. When the CIM/ultracentrifugation method was compared with another concentration method employing positively charged membranes and ultrafiltration, the recovery of HAV was improved by approximately 20%.

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E. I. Trilisky, H. Koku, K. J. Czymmek, A. M. Lenhoff

Journal of Chromatography A, 1216 (2009) 6365–6376

Commercially available polymer-based monolithic and perfusive stationary phases were evaluated for their applicability in chromatography of biologics. Information on bed geometry, including that from electron microscopy (EM), was used to interpret and predict accessible volumes, binding capacities, and pressure drops. For preparative purification of biologics up to at least 7 nm in diameter, monoliths and perfusive resins are inferior to conventional stationary phases due to their low binding capacities (20–30 g/L for BSA). For larger biologics, up to several hundred nanometers in diameter, calculations from EM images predict a potential increase in binding capacity to nearly 100 g/L. The accessible volume for adenovirus calculated from the EM images matched the experimental value. While the pores of perfusive resins are essentially inaccessible to adenovirus under binding conditions, under non-adsorbing conditions the accessible intrabead porosity is almost as large as the interbead porosity. Modeling of breakthrough curves showed that the experimentally observed slow approach to full saturation can be explained by the distribution of pore sizes.

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M. R. Etzel, W. T. Riordan

Jorunal of Chromatography A 1216 (2009) 2621-2624

Clearance of biological impurities is an essential part of the manufacture of biotechnology-derived products such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Salt is required during manufacture to solubilize the mAb product and stabilize it against aggregation, but salt can be a problem later during impurity clearance operations. In this work, the use of a traditional quaternary amine (Q) monolith, and a new salt-tolerant monolith were evaluated for the clearance of pathogenic impurities including viruses, DNA, and host-cell protein (HCP). The impact of flow rate, salt concentration, and presence of mixtures of impurities in the feed stream were evaluated. Both monoliths cleared DNA to the limit of detection at all salt concentrations, and both cleared virus and HCP equally well at no salt. At intermediate salt, clearance of HCP was greater for the salt-tolerant monolith, and only the salt-tolerant monolith cleared virus at elevated salt. In conclusion, monoliths successfully trapped impurities such as DNA, host-cell protein, and viruses, and at flow rates far greater than traditional chromatography columns packed with beads.

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R. J. Whitfield, S. E. Battom, M. Barut, D. E. Gilham, P. D. Ball

Journal of Chromatography A, 1216 (2009) 2725-2729

To support effective process development there is a requirement for rapid analytical methods that can identify and quantitate adenoviral particles throughout the manufacturing process, from cellular lysate through to purified adenovirus. An anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography method for the analysis of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) particles has been developed using a novel quaternary amine monolithic column (Bio-Monolith QA, Agilent). The developed method separates intact Ad5 from contaminating proteins and DNA, thus allowing analysis of non-purified samples during process development. Regeneration conditions were incorporated to extend the functional life of the column. Once developed, the method was qualified according to performance criteria of repeatability, intermediate precision and linearity. The linear working range of analysis was established between 7.5 × 108 to at least 2.4 × 1010 viral particles (3 × 1010 to 9.6 × 1011 viral particles/mL), with a correlation coefficient of 0.9992. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) for intra- and inter-day repeatability and precision for retention time and peak area were less than 1 and 2.5%, respectively.

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M. C. Cheeks, N. Kamal, A. Sorrel, D. Darling, F. Farzaneh, N. K. H. Slater

Journal of Chromatography A, 1216 (2009) 2705–2711

Histidine-tagged lentiviral vectors were separated from crude cell culture supernatant using labscale monolithic adsorbents by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The capture capacity, concentration factor, purification factor, and elution efficiency of a supermacroporous cryogel monolith were evaluated against the BIA Separations convective interaction media (CIM) disc, which is a commercial macroporous monolith. The morphology of the polymeric cryogel material was characterised by scanning electron microscopy. Iminodiacetic acid was used as the metal chelating ligand in both monoliths and the chelating capacity for metal ions was found to be comparable. The CIM-IDA-Ni2+ adsorbent had the greatest capture capacity (6.7 × 108 IU/ml of adsorbent), concentration factor (1.3-fold), and elution efficiency (69%). Advantages of the cryogel monoliths included rapid, low pressure processing as well low levels of protein and DNA in the final purified vector preparations.

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I. Gutiérrez-Aguirre, M. Banjac, A. Steyer, M. Poljšak-Prijatelj, M. Peterka, A. Štrancar, M. Ravnikar

Journal of Chromatography A, 1216 (2009) 2700–2704

Rotaviruses are the leading cause of diarrhoea in infants around the globe and, under certain conditions they can be present in drinking water sources and systems. Ingestion of 10–100 viral particles is enough to cause disease, emphasizing the need for sensitive diagnostic methods. In this study we have optimized the concentration of rotavirus particles using methacrylate monolithic chromatographic supports. Different surface chemistries and mobile phases were tested. A strong anion exchanger and phosphate buffer (pH 7) resulted in the highest recoveries after elution of the bound virus with 1 M NaCl. Using this approach, rotavirus particles spiked in 1 l volumes of tap or river water were efficiently concentrated. The developed concentration method in combination with a real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay detected rotavirus concentrations as low as 100 rotavirus particles/ml.

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C. Delattre, M. A. Vijayalakshmi

Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic 60 (2009) 97–105

Recent research in the area of bioactive carbohydrates has shown the efficiency of oligosaccharides as signal molecules in a lot of biological activities. Newly observed functions of oligosaccharides and their abilities to act as specific regulatory molecules on various organisms have been more and more described. A successful development of these bioactive molecules in future needs efficient processes for specific oligosaccharides production. To exploit them for putative industrial scale up processes, two main strategies are currently investigated: the synthesis (chemical or bioconversion processes) and the polysaccharide cleavage (chemical, physical or biological processes). Nevertheless, if new manufacturing biotechnologies have considerably increased the development of these functional molecules, the main drawback limiting their biological applications is the complexity to engender specific glycosidic structures for specific activities. In the recent years, new enzymatic reactors have been developed, allowing the automatic synthesis of oligosaccharide structures. This review focuses on the knowledge in the area of bioactive oligosaccharides and gives the main processes employed to generate them for industrial applications with challenges of monolith microreactors.

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2008

C. Delattre, A.S. Kamalanathan, P. Michaud, M.A. Vijayalakshmi

Journal of Chromatography B, 861 (2008) 181–185

Selective purification of alpha-(1,4)-oligogalacturonides was investigated using several pseudobioaffinity chromatography matrix with aminoacid
L-histidine as pseudobiospecific ligand: (1) sepharose 4B-bisoxyran-histidine, (2) sepharose 4B-epoxy-histidine, (3) silica-oxyran-histidine and
(4) CIM-disk-EDA-histidine. These anionic oligosaccharides prepared by enzymatic and chemical cleavage of polygalacturonic acid were used
as models sugar in order to optimize the adsorption and elution parameters for a selective purification of bioactive oligouronides. Monolithic
CIM-disk chromatography is one of the fastest liquid chromatographic method using for separation and purification of biomolecules thanks to high
mass transfer rate. In this way, this new monolithic CIM-disk system with l-histidine immobilized: immobilized histidine affinity chromatography
(IHAC) constitutes a good tool allowing the fast and selective purification of bioactive oligouronides.

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