ChemieXtra 3/2012 pp 30-33
BIA Separations produziert und vertreibt kurze monolithischen Chromatografiesäulen, die auf der CIM-Convective Interaction Media-Technologie basieren. CIM-Säulen eignen sich vor allem für die Reinigung von grossen Biomolekülen wie etwa Viren (virale Vektoren und Impfstoffe), DNA (Plasmid-DNA) und grössere Proteine (Immunglobuline G und M, pegylierte Proteine). Sie weisen einzigartige Eigenschaften in Bezug auf operative Flussraten, Adsorptionsfähigkeit und Trennung grosser Biomoleküle auf. Die Säulen werden in Forschung, Labor, Pilot- und industriellen Produktionsstufen eingesetzt und sind extrem einfach zu handhaben.
R. Milačič, D. Ajlec, T. Zuliani, D. Žigon, J. Ščančar
Talanta 101 (2012) 203-210
In human milk zinc (Zn) is bound to proteins and low molecular mass (LMM) ligands. Numerous investigations demonstrated that Zn bioavailability in human milk is for infant much higher than in cow's milk. It was presumed that in the LMM human milk fraction highly bioavailable Zn-citrate prevails. However, literature data are controversial regarding the amount of Zn-citrate in human milk since analytical procedures reported were not quantitative. So, complex investigation was carried out to develop analytical method for quantitative determination of this biologically important molecule. Studies were performed within the pH range 5–7 by the use of synthetic solutions of Zn-citrate prepared in HEPES, MOPS and MES buffers. Zn-citrate was separated on weak anion-exchange convective interaction media (CIM) diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) monolithic chromatographic column using NH4NO3 as an eluent. Separated Zn species were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Quantitative separation of Zn-citrate complexes ([Zn(Cit)]- and [Zn(Cit)2]4-; column recoveries 94–102%) and good repeatability and reproducibility of results with relative standard deviation (RSD±3.0%) were obtained. In fractions under the chromatographic peaks Zn-binding ligand was identified by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS-MS). Limits of detection (LOD) for determination of Zn-citrate species by CIM DEAE-FAAS and CIM DEAE-ICP-MS were 0.01 μg Zn mL-1 and 0.0005 μg Zn mL-1, respectively. Both techniques were sensitive enough for quantification of Zn-citrate in human milk. Results demonstrated that about 23% of total Zn was present in the LMM milk fraction and that LMM-Zn corresponded to Zn-citrate. The developed speciation method represents a reliable analytical tool for investigation of the percentage and the amount of Zn-citrate in human milk.
T. Koho, T. Mantyla, P. Laurinmaki, L. Huhti, S. J. Butcher, T. Vesikari, M. S. Kulomaa, V. P. Hytonen
Journal of Virological Methods 181 (2012) 6-11
Recombinant expression of the norovirus capsid protein VP1 leads to self-assembly of non-infectious virus-like particles (VLPs), which are recognized as promising vaccine candidates against norovirus infections. To overcome the scalability issues connected to the ultracentrifugation-based purification strategies used in previous studies, an anion exchange-based purification method for norovirus VLPs was developed in this study. The method consists of precipitation by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and a single anion exchange chromatography step for purifying baculovirus-expressed GII.4 norovirus VLPs, which can be performed within one day. High product purity was obtained using chromatography. The purified material also contained fully assembled monodispersed VLPs, which were recognized by human sera containing polyclonal antibodies against norovirus GII.4.
M. Rupar, M. Ravnikar, M. Tušek-Žnidarič, P. Kramberger, L. Glais, I. Gutiérrez-Aguirre
Journal of Chromatography A, 1272 (2013) 33-40(2013) 33-40
Obtaining pure virus suspensions is an essential step in many applications, such as vaccine production, antibody production, sample preparation for procedures requiring enrichment in viruses and other in vitro characterizations. Purification procedures usually consist of complex, long lasting and tedious protocols involving several ultracentrifugation steps. Such complexity is particularly evident in the case of plant viruses, where the virus needs to be isolated from the complex plant tissue matrix. Convective Interaction Media (CIM) monoliths are chromatographic supports that have been successfully utilized for the purification of large bio-molecules such as viruses, virus like particles and plasmids from various matrixes. In this study a CIM monolith based procedure was developed for the fast purification from plant tissue of the filamentous Potato virus Y (PVY) (virion size, 740 nm × 11 nm), which is one of the most important plant viruses causing great economical losses in potato production. Different mobile phases, chemistries and sample preparation strategies were tested. The presence of the virus in the chromatographic fraction was monitored with viral RNA quantification (RT-qPCR), viral protein purity estimation (SDS-PAGE) and viral particle integrity observation (transmission electron microscopy). The optimized procedure involves initial clarification steps, followed by chromatography using CIM quaternary amine (QA) monolithic disk column. In comparison to classical purification procedure involving ultracentrifugation through sucrose and caesium chloride, the developed CIM-QA purification achieved comparable yield, concentration and purity. Plant nucleic acids were successfully removed. Purification showed good reproducibility and moreover it reduced the purification time from four working days required for classic purification to a day and a half. This is the first study where a filamentous virus was purified using CIM monolithic supports. The advantages of this new purification procedure make it an attractive method in serological diagnostic tool production, which requires purified viruses for the immunization step. Moreover, the outcome of this study could serve as starting point for the improvement of the purification methods of other important filamentous viruses.
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M. M. Segura, M. Puig, M. Monfar, M. Chillon
HUMAN GENE THERAPY METHODS 23:182–197 (June 2012)
Canine adenovirus vectors (CAV2) are currently being evaluated for gene therapy, oncolytic virotherapy, and as vectors for recombinant vaccines. Despite the need for increasing volumes of purified CAV2 preparations for preclinical and clinical testing, their purification still relies on the use of conventional, scale-limited CsCl ul- tracentrifugation techniques. A complete downstream processing strategy for CAV2 vectors based on membrane filtration and chromatography is reported here. Microfiltration and ultra/diafiltration are selected for clarifi- cation and concentration of crude viral stocks containing both intracellular and extracellular CAV2 particles. A DNase digestion step is introduced between ultrafiltration and diafiltration operations. At these early stages, concentration of vector stocks with good recovery of viral particles (above 80%) and removal of a substantial amount of protein and nucleic acid contaminants is achieved. The ability of various chromatography techniques to isolate CAV2 particles was evaluated. Hydrophobic interaction chromatography using a Fractogel propyl tentacle resin was selected as a first chromatography step, because it allows removal of the bulk of contami- nating proteins with high CAV2 yields (88%). An anion-exchange chromatography step using monolithic supports is further introduced to remove the remaining contaminants with good recovery of CAV2 particles (58– 69%). The main CAV2 viral structural components are visualized in purified preparations by electrophoresis analyses. Purified vector stocks contained intact icosahedral viral particles, low contamination with empty viral capsids (10%), and an acceptable total-to-infectious particle ratio (below 30). The downstream processing strategy that was developed allows preparation of large volumes of high-quality CAV2 stocks.
N. Mehle, M. Ravnikar
Water research 46 (2012) 4902 - 4917
The presence of plant viruses outside their plant host or insect vectors has not been studied intensively. This is due, in part, to the lack of effective detection methods that would enable their detection in difficult matrixes and in low titres, and support the search for unknown viruses. Recently, new and sensitive methods for detecting viruses have resulted in a deeper insight into plant virus movement through, and transmission between, plants. In this review, we have focused on plant viruses found in environmental waters and their detection. Infectious plant pathogenic viruses from at least 7 different genera have been found in aqueous environment. The majority of the plant pathogenic viruses so far recovered from environmental waters are very stable, they can infect plants via the roots without the aid of a vector and often have a wide host range. The release of such viruses from plants can lead to their dissemination in streams, lakes, and rivers, thereby ensuring the long-distance spread of viruses that otherwise, under natural conditions, would remain restricted to limited areas.
The possible sources and survival of plant viruses in waters are therefore discussed. Due to the widespread use of hydroponic systems and intensive irrigation in horticulture, the review is focused on the possibility and importance of spreading viral infection by water, together with measures for preventing the spread of viruses. The development of new methods for detecting multiple plant viruses at the same time, like microarrays or new generation sequencing, will facilitate the monitoring of environmental waters and waters used for irrigation and in hydroponic systems. It is reasonable to expect that the list of plant viruses found in waters will thereby be expanded considerably. This will emphasize the need for further studies to determine the biological significance of water-mediated transport.
V. Bandeira, C. Peixoto, A. F. Rodrigues, P. E. Cruz, P. M. Alves, A. S. Coroadinha, M. J. T. Carrondo
Human Gene Therapy Methods 23:1-9 (August 2012)
Lentiviral vectors (LVs) hold great potential as gene delivery vehicles. However, the manufacturing and purification of these vectors still present major challenges, mainly because of the low stability of the virus, essentially due to the fragility of the membrane envelope. The main goal of this work was the establishment of a fast, scalable, and robust downstream protocol for LVs, combining microfiltration, anion-exchange, and ultrafiltration membrane technologies toward maximization of infectious LVs recovery. CIM® (Convective Interaction Media) monolithic columns with diethylaminoethanol (DEAE) anion exchangers were used for the purification of clarified LV supernatants, allowing infectious vector recoveries of 80%, which is 10% higher than the values currently reported in the literature. These recoveries, combined with the results obtained after optimization of the remaining downstream purification steps, resulted in overall infectious LV yields of 36%. Moreover, the inclusion of a Benzonase step allowed a removal of approximately 99% of DNA impurities. The entire downstream processing strategy herein described was conceived based on disposable and easily scalable technologies. Overall, CIM DEAE columns have shown to be a good alternative for the purification of LVs, since they allow faster processing of the viral bulks and enhanced preservation of virus biological activity, consequently, increasing infectious vector recoveries.
E. M. Adriaenssens et al.
SciVerse ScienceDirect, Virology, 2012
The use of anion-exchange chromatography was investigated as an alternative method to concentrate and purify bacterial viruses, and parameters for different bacteriophages were compared. Chromatography was performed with Convective Interactive Media® monoliths, with three different volumes and two matrix chemistries. Eleven morphologically distinct phages were tested, infecting five different bacterial species. For each of the phages tested, a protocol was optimized, including the choice of column chemistry, loading, buffer and elution conditions. The capacity and recovery of the phages on the columns varied considerably between phages. We conclude that anion-exchange chromatography with monoliths is a valid alternative to the more traditional CsCl purification, has upscaling advantages, but it requires more extensive optimization.
E. S. Sinitsyna, J. G. Walter, E. G. Vlakh, F. Stahl, C. Kasper, T. B. Tennikova
Talanta 93 (2012) 139-146
Macroporous monoliths with different surface functionalization (reactive groups) were utilized as platforms for DNA analysis in microarray format. The slides based on a copolymer glycidyl methacrylate-co- ethylene dimethacrylate (GMA-EDMA) have been chosen as well known and thoroughly studied standard. In particular, this material has been used at optimization of DNA microanalytical procedure.
The concentration and pH of spotting solution, immobilization temperature and time, blocking agent and coupling reaction duration were selected as varied parameters. The efficiency of analysis performed on 3-D monolithic platforms was compared to that established for commercially available glass slides. As a practical example, a diagnostic test for detection of CFTR gene mutation was carried out. Additionally, the part of presented work was devoted to preparation of aptamer-based test-system that allowed successful and highly sensitive detection both of DNA and protein.
M. Lock, M. R. Alvira, J. M. Wilson
HUMAN GENE THERAPY METHODS: Part B 23:56-64 (February 2012)
Advances in adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene therapy have brought the possibility of commercial manufacturing of AAV vectors one step closer. To realize this prospect, a parallel effort with the goal of everincreasing sophistication for AAV vector production technology and supporting assays will be required. Among the important release assays for a clinical gene therapy product, those monitoring potentially hazardous contaminants are most critical for patient safety. A prominent contaminant in many AAV vector preparations is vector particles lacking a genome, which can substantially increase the dose of AAV capsid proteins and lead to possible unwanted immunological consequences. Current methods to determine empty particle content suffer from inconsistency, are adversely affected by contaminants, or are not applicable to all serotypes. Here we describe the development of an ion-exchange chromatography-based assay that permits the rapid separation and relative quantification of AAV8 empty and full vector particles through the application of shallow gradients and a strong anion-exchange monolith chromatography medium.
J. Ruščić, I. Gutierrez-Aguirre, L. Urbas, P. Kramberger, N. Mehle, D. Škorić, M. Barut, M. Ravnikar, M. Krajačić
Journal of Chromatography A, 1274 (2013) 129-136
Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) is the causal agent of a number of agriculturally important diseases. It is a single-stranded, circular and unencapsidated RNA molecule with only 356–360 nucleotides and no coding capacity. Because of its peculiar structural features, it is very stable ex vivo and it is easily transmitted mechanically by contaminated hands, tools, machinery, etc. In this work, we describe the development and optimization of a method for concentrating PSTVd using Convective Interaction Media (CIM) monolithic columns. The ion-exchange chromatography on diethylamine (DEAE) monolithic analytical column (CIMac DEAE-0.1 mL) resulted in up to 30% PSTVd recovery whilst the hydrophobic interaction chromatography on C4 monolithic analytical column (CIMac C4-0.1 mL) improved it up to 60%. This was due to the fact that the binding of the viroid to the C4 matrix was less strong than to the highly charged anion-exchange matrix and could be easier and more completely eluted under the applied chromatographic conditions. Based on these preliminary results, a C4 HLD-1 (High Ligand Density) 1 mL monolithic tube column was selected for further experiments. One-litre-water samples were mixed with different viroid quantities and loaded onto the column. By using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), the viroid RNA was quantified in the elution fraction (≈5 mL) indicating that 70% of the viroid was recovered and concentrated by at least two orders of magnitude. This approach will be helpful in screening irrigation waters and/or hydroponic systems’ nutrient solutions for the presence of even extremely low concentrations of PSTVd.
S. H. Lubbad, M. R. Buchmeiser
Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2362-2367
Ring-opening metathesis polymerization- (ROMP) derived monoliths were prepared from 5-norborn-2-enemethyl bromide (NBE-CH2Br) and tris(5-norborn-2-enemethoxy)methylsilane ((NBE-CH2O)3SiCH3) within the confines of surface-silanized borosilicate columns (100 × 3 mm I.D.), applying Grubbs’ first generation benzylidene-type catalyst [RuCl2(PCy3)2(CHPh)]. Monoliths were converted into weak anion exchangers via reaction with diethyl amine. The resulting monolithic anion exchangers demonstrated a very good potential for the anion-exchange separation of nucleic acids applying a phosphate buffer (0.05 mol/L, pH 7) and NaCl (1.0 mol/L) as a gradient former. Fast and efficient separations, indicated by sharp and highly symmetric analyte peaks, were established. Except for the 267 and 298 base pair fragments, the eleven fragments of a ds-pUC18 DNA Hae III digest were baseline separated within ∼8 min. Nineteen fragments of a ds-pBR322 Hae III digest were separated within ∼12 min. There, only the 192 and 213 base pair fragments and the 458, 504 and 540 base pair fragments coeluted. A ds-pUC18 DNA Hae III digest was used as a control analyte in evaluating the influence of organic additives on the mobile phase such as methanol and acetonitrile on nucleic acid separation. Methanol, and even better, acetonitrile improved the separation efficiency and shortened the analysis time.
S. Yamamoto, T. Okada, M. Abe, N. Yoshimoto
Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2460-2466
The peak spreading of DNAs of various sizes [12-mer, 20-mer, 50-mer and 95-mer poly(T)] in linear gradient elution (LGE) chromatography with a thin monolithic disk was investigated by using our method developed for determining HETP in LGE. Electrostatic interaction-based chromatography mode (ion-exchange chromatography, IEC) was used. Polymer-based monolithic disks of two different sizes (12 mm diameter, 3 mm thickness and 0.34 mL; 5.2 mm diameter, 4.95 mm thickness and 0.105 mL) having anion-exchange groups were employed. For comparison, a 15-μm porous bead IEC column (Resource Q, 6.4 mm diameter, 30 mm height and 0.97 mL) was also used. The peak width did not change with the flow velocity for the monolithic disks where as it became wider with increasing velocity. For the monolithic disks the peak width normalized with the column bed volume was well-correlated with the distribution coefficient at the peak position KR. HETP values were constant (ca. 0.003–0.005 cm) when KR > 5. Much higher HETP values which are flow-rate dependent were obtained for the porous bead chromatography. It is possible to obtain 50–100 plates for the 3 mm monolithic disk. This results in very sharp elution peaks (standard deviation/bed volume = 0.15) even for stepwise elution chromatography, where the peak width is similar to that for LGE of a very steep gradient slope.
M. Pucic, A. Knezevic, J. Vidic, B. Adamczyk, M. Novokmet, O. Polasek, O. Gornik, S. Supraha-Goreta, M. R. Wormald, I. Redzic, H. Campbell, A. Wright, N. D. Hastie, J. F. Wilson, I. Rudan, M. Wuhrer, P. M. Rudd, Dj. Josic, and G. Lauc
Mol Cell Proteomics. Oct 2011; published online Jun 8, 2011
All immunoglobulin G molecules carry N-glycans, which modulate their biological activity. Changes in N-glycosylation of IgG associate with various diseases and affect the activity of therapeutic antibodies and intravenous immunoglobulins. We have developed a novel 96-well protein G monolithic plate and used it to rapidly isolate IgG from plasma of 2298 individuals from three isolated human populations. N-glycans were released by PNGase F, labeled with 2-aminobenzamide and analyzed by hydrophilic interaction chromatography with fluorescence detection. The majority of the structural features of the IgG glycome were consistent with previous studies, but sialylation was somewhat higher than reported previously.
Sialylation was particularly prominent in core fucosylated glycans containing two galactose residues and bisecting GlcNAc where median sialylation level was nearly 80%. Very high variability between individuals was observed, approximately three times higher than in the total plasma glycome. For example, neutral IgG glycans without core fucose varied between 1.3 and 19%, a difference that significantly affects the effector functions of natural antibodies, predisposing or protecting individuals from particular diseases. Heritability of IgG glycans was generally between 30 and 50%. The individual's age was associated with a significant decrease in galactose and increase of bisecting GlcNAc, whereas other functional elements of IgG glycosylation did not change much with age. Gender was not an important predictor for any IgG glycan. An important observation is that competition between glycosyltransferases, which occurs in vitro, did not appear to be relevant in vivo, indicating that the final glycan structures are not a simple result of competing enzymatic activities, but a carefully regulated outcome designed to meet the prevailing physiological needs.
Z. Jiang, N. W. Smith, Z. Liu
Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2350-2361
Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) has experienced increasing attention in recent years. Much research has been carried out in the area of HILIC separation mechanisms, column techniques and applications. Because of their good permeability, low resistance to mass transfer and easy preparation within capillaries, hydrophilic monolithic columns represent a trend among novel HILIC column techniques. This review attempts to present an overview of the preparation and applications of HILIC monolithic columns carried out in the past decade. The separation mechanism of various hydrophilic monolithic stationary phases is also reviewed.
E. F. Maksimova, E. G. Vlakh, T. B. Tennikova
Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2425-2431
A series of macroporous monolithic methacrylate-based materials was synthesized by in situ free radical UV-initiated copolymerization of functional monomers, such as glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), butyl methacrylate (BuMA), 2-aminoethyl methacrylate (AEMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and 2-cyanoethyl methacrylate (CEMA), with crosslinking agent, namely, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA). The materials obtained were applied as the stationary phases in simple and robust technique – planar chromatography (PLC). The method of separation layer fabrication representing macroporous polymer monolith bound to the specially prepared glass surface was developed and optimized. The GMA–EDMA and BuMA–EDMA matrixes were successfully applied for the separation of low molecular weight compounds (the mixture of several dies), as well as poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and polystyrene homopolymers of different molecular weights using reversed-phase mechanism. The materials based on copolymers AEMA–HEMA–EDMA and CEMA–HEMA–EDMA were used for normal-phase PLC separation of 2,4-dinitrophenyl amino acids and polystyrene standards.
M. R. Etzel, T. Bund
Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2445-2450
Proteins conjugated to neutral biopolymers are of keen interest to the food and pharmaceutical industries. Conjugated proteins are larger and more charge shielded than un-reacted proteins, making purification difficult using conventional beaded chromatographic supports because of slow mass transfer rates, weak binding, and viscous solutions. Past methods developed for pharmaceuticals are unsuitable for foods. In this work, a food-grade whey protein–dextran conjugate was purified from a feed solution also containing un-reacted protein and dextran using either a column packed with 800 mL of a beaded support that was specifically designed for purification of conjugated proteins or an 8 mL tube monolith. The monolith gave a similar dynamic binding capacity as the beaded support (4–6 g/L), at a 42-fold greater mass productivity, and 48-fold higher flow rate, albeit at somewhat lower conjugate purity. Performance of the monolith did not depend on flow rate. In conclusion, monoliths were found to be well suited for the purification of whey protein–dextran conjugates.
I. Pulko, V. Smrekar, A. Podgornik, P. Krajnc
Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2396-2401
Approximately 25 cm × 25 cm large sheets of crosslinked highly porous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate-co-ethylhexyl methacrylate) membranes with an average thicknesses between 285 and 565 μm were prepared by casting a high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) containing monomers onto glass substrates and subsequent polymerisation. Open cellular porous polyHIPE type membranes were obtained with large pores (cavity) sizes between 3 and 10 μm while interconnecting pores were between 1 and 3 μm. The percentage of ethylhexyl acrylate and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate influenced the flexibility and morphology of the resulting membranes. Porous membranes were chemically modified with diethylamine to yield functionalised supports for ion exchange chromatography. Cylindrical housings were used for positioning of the membranes and allowing flow of the mobile phase. Pulse experiments were used to study the flow characteristics and a homogeneous flow through the entire area of the membrane was found. Bovine serum albumin was purified by a 8 ml column containing functional membrane in modular shape; dynamic binding capacity was measured to be as high as 45 mg/ml.
C. Valasek, J. Cole, F. Hensel, P. Ye, M. A. Conner, M. E. Ultee
BioProcess International, Vol. 9, No. 11, December 2011, pp. 28–37
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies have been used to treat cancer for many years (1). Another class of antibodies—immunoglobulin M (IgM)—has been overlooked in spite of offering unique advantages that make them highly desirable as cancer therapeutics. Serving a valuable function in our innate immune system, IgM antibodies are the first to be secreted when an abnormal cell is present (2). These antibodies play a critical role in recognition and elimination of infectious particles (3,4), in removal of intracellular components, and in immunosurveillance mechanisms against malignant cells (5,6). IgMs also can bind to multiple copies of a target on a cancer cell surface. Such high avidity leads to cross-linking and more effective cell killing (7).
P. Gagnon, F. Hensel, S. Lee, S. Zaidi
Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2405-2412
This study documents the presence of stable complexes between monoclonal IgM and genomic DNA in freshly harvested mammalian cell culture supernatants. 75% of the complex population elutes from size exclusion chromatography with the same retention volume as IgM. DNA comprises 24% of the complex mass, corresponding to an average of 347 base pairs per IgM molecule, distributed among fragments smaller than about 115 base pairs. Electrostatic interactions appear to provide most of the binding energy, with secondary stabilization by hydrogen bonding and metal affinity. DNA-dominant complexes are unretained by bioaffinity chromatography, while IgM-dominant complexes are retained and coelute with IgM. DNA-dominant complexes are repelled from cation exchangers, while IgM-dominant complexes are retained and partially dissociated. Partially dissociated forms elute in order of decreasing DNA content. The same pattern is observed with hydrophobic interaction chromatography. All complex compositions bind to anion exchangers and elute in order of increasing DNA content. A porous particle anion exchanger was unable to dissociate DNA from IgM. Monolithic anion exchangers, offering up to15-fold higher charge density, achieved nearly complete complex dissociation. The charge-dense monolith surface appears to outcompete IgM for the DNA. Monoliths also exhibit more than double the IgM dynamic binding capacity of the porous particle anion exchanger, apparently due to better surface accessibility and more efficient mass transfer.