2012

V. Bandeira, C. Peixoto, A. F. Rodrigues, P. E. Cruz, P. M. Alves, A. S. Coroadinha, M. J. T. Carrondo

Human Gene Therapy Methods 23:1-9 (August 2012)

Lentiviral vectors (LVs) hold great potential as gene delivery vehicles. However, the manufacturing and purification of these vectors still present major challenges, mainly because of the low stability of the virus, essentially due to the fragility of the membrane envelope. The main goal of this work was the establishment of a fast, scalable, and robust downstream protocol for LVs, combining microfiltration, anion-exchange, and ultrafiltration membrane technologies toward maximization of infectious LVs recovery. CIM® (Convective Interaction Media) monolithic columns with diethylaminoethanol (DEAE) anion exchangers were used for the purification of clarified LV supernatants, allowing infectious vector recoveries of 80%, which is 10% higher than the values currently reported in the literature. These recoveries, combined with the results obtained after optimization of the remaining downstream purification steps, resulted in overall infectious LV yields of 36%. Moreover, the inclusion of a Benzonase step allowed a removal of approximately 99% of DNA impurities. The entire downstream processing strategy herein described was conceived based on disposable and easily scalable technologies. Overall, CIM DEAE columns have shown to be a good alternative for the purification of LVs, since they allow faster processing of the viral bulks and enhanced preservation of virus biological activity, consequently, increasing infectious vector recoveries.

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E. M. Adriaenssens et al.

SciVerse ScienceDirect, Virology, 2012

The use of anion-exchange chromatography was investigated as an alternative method to concentrate and purify bacterial viruses, and parameters for different bacteriophages were compared. Chromatography was performed with Convective Interactive Media® monoliths, with three different volumes and two matrix chemistries. Eleven morphologically distinct phages were tested, infecting five different bacterial species. For each of the phages tested, a protocol was optimized, including the choice of column chemistry, loading, buffer and elution conditions. The capacity and recovery of the phages on the columns varied considerably between phages. We conclude that anion-exchange chromatography with monoliths is a valid alternative to the more traditional CsCl purification, has upscaling advantages, but it requires more extensive optimization.

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E. S. Sinitsyna, J. G. Walter, E. G. Vlakh, F. Stahl, C. Kasper, T. B. Tennikova
Talanta 93 (2012) 139-146

Macroporous monoliths with different surface functionalization (reactive groups) were utilized as platforms for DNA analysis in microarray format. The slides based on a copolymer glycidyl methacrylate-co- ethylene dimethacrylate (GMA-EDMA) have been chosen as well known and thoroughly studied standard. In particular, this material has been used at optimization of DNA microanalytical procedure.

The concentration and pH of spotting solution, immobilization temperature and time, blocking agent and coupling reaction duration were selected as varied parameters. The efficiency of analysis performed on 3-D monolithic platforms was compared to that established for commercially available glass slides. As a practical example, a diagnostic test for detection of CFTR gene mutation was carried out. Additionally, the part of presented work was devoted to preparation of aptamer-based test-system that allowed successful and highly sensitive detection both of DNA and protein.

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M. Lock, M. R. Alvira, J. M. Wilson
HUMAN GENE THERAPY METHODS: Part B 23:56-64 (February 2012)

Advances in adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene therapy have brought the possibility of commercial manufacturing of AAV vectors one step closer. To realize this prospect, a parallel effort with the goal of everincreasing sophistication for AAV vector production technology and supporting assays will be required. Among the important release assays for a clinical gene therapy product, those monitoring potentially hazardous contaminants are most critical for patient safety. A prominent contaminant in many AAV vector preparations is vector particles lacking a genome, which can substantially increase the dose of AAV capsid proteins and lead to possible unwanted immunological consequences. Current methods to determine empty particle content suffer from inconsistency, are adversely affected by contaminants, or are not applicable to all serotypes. Here we describe the development of an ion-exchange chromatography-based assay that permits the rapid separation and relative quantification of AAV8 empty and full vector particles through the application of shallow gradients and a strong anion-exchange monolith chromatography medium.

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J. Ruščić, I. Gutierrez-Aguirre, L. Urbas, P. Kramberger, N. Mehle, D. Škorić, M. Barut, M. Ravnikar, M. Krajačić

Journal of Chromatography A, 1274 (2013) 129-136

Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) is the causal agent of a number of agriculturally important diseases. It is a single-stranded, circular and unencapsidated RNA molecule with only 356–360 nucleotides and no coding capacity. Because of its peculiar structural features, it is very stable ex vivo and it is easily transmitted mechanically by contaminated hands, tools, machinery, etc. In this work, we describe the development and optimization of a method for concentrating PSTVd using Convective Interaction Media (CIM) monolithic columns. The ion-exchange chromatography on diethylamine (DEAE) monolithic analytical column (CIMac DEAE-0.1 mL) resulted in up to 30% PSTVd recovery whilst the hydrophobic interaction chromatography on C4 monolithic analytical column (CIMac C4-0.1 mL) improved it up to 60%. This was due to the fact that the binding of the viroid to the C4 matrix was less strong than to the highly charged anion-exchange matrix and could be easier and more completely eluted under the applied chromatographic conditions. Based on these preliminary results, a C4 HLD-1 (High Ligand Density) 1 mL monolithic tube column was selected for further experiments. One-litre-water samples were mixed with different viroid quantities and loaded onto the column. By using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), the viroid RNA was quantified in the elution fraction (≈5 mL) indicating that 70% of the viroid was recovered and concentrated by at least two orders of magnitude. This approach will be helpful in screening irrigation waters and/or hydroponic systems’ nutrient solutions for the presence of even extremely low concentrations of PSTVd.

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2011

S. H. Lubbad, M. R. Buchmeiser

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2362-2367

Ring-opening metathesis polymerization- (ROMP) derived monoliths were prepared from 5-norborn-2-enemethyl bromide (NBE-CH2Br) and tris(5-norborn-2-enemethoxy)methylsilane ((NBE-CH2O)3SiCH3) within the confines of surface-silanized borosilicate columns (100 × 3 mm I.D.), applying Grubbs’ first generation benzylidene-type catalyst [RuCl2(PCy3)2(CHPh)]. Monoliths were converted into weak anion exchangers via reaction with diethyl amine. The resulting monolithic anion exchangers demonstrated a very good potential for the anion-exchange separation of nucleic acids applying a phosphate buffer (0.05 mol/L, pH 7) and NaCl (1.0 mol/L) as a gradient former. Fast and efficient separations, indicated by sharp and highly symmetric analyte peaks, were established. Except for the 267 and 298 base pair fragments, the eleven fragments of a ds-pUC18 DNA Hae III digest were baseline separated within ∼8 min. Nineteen fragments of a ds-pBR322 Hae III digest were separated within ∼12 min. There, only the 192 and 213 base pair fragments and the 458, 504 and 540 base pair fragments coeluted. A ds-pUC18 DNA Hae III digest was used as a control analyte in evaluating the influence of organic additives on the mobile phase such as methanol and acetonitrile on nucleic acid separation. Methanol, and even better, acetonitrile improved the separation efficiency and shortened the analysis time.

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S. Yamamoto, T. Okada, M. Abe, N. Yoshimoto

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2460-2466

The peak spreading of DNAs of various sizes [12-mer, 20-mer, 50-mer and 95-mer poly(T)] in linear gradient elution (LGE) chromatography with a thin monolithic disk was investigated by using our method developed for determining HETP in LGE. Electrostatic interaction-based chromatography mode (ion-exchange chromatography, IEC) was used. Polymer-based monolithic disks of two different sizes (12 mm diameter, 3 mm thickness and 0.34 mL; 5.2 mm diameter, 4.95 mm thickness and 0.105 mL) having anion-exchange groups were employed. For comparison, a 15-μm porous bead IEC column (Resource Q, 6.4 mm diameter, 30 mm height and 0.97 mL) was also used. The peak width did not change with the flow velocity for the monolithic disks where as it became wider with increasing velocity. For the monolithic disks the peak width normalized with the column bed volume was well-correlated with the distribution coefficient at the peak position KR. HETP values were constant (ca. 0.003–0.005 cm) when KR > 5. Much higher HETP values which are flow-rate dependent were obtained for the porous bead chromatography. It is possible to obtain 50–100 plates for the 3 mm monolithic disk. This results in very sharp elution peaks (standard deviation/bed volume = 0.15) even for stepwise elution chromatography, where the peak width is similar to that for LGE of a very steep gradient slope.

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M. Pucic, A. Knezevic, J. Vidic, B. Adamczyk, M. Novokmet, O. Polasek, O. Gornik, S. Supraha-Goreta, M. R. Wormald, I. Redzic, H. Campbell, A. Wright, N. D. Hastie, J. F. Wilson, I. Rudan, M. Wuhrer, P. M. Rudd, Dj. Josic, and G. Lauc

Mol Cell Proteomics. Oct 2011; published online Jun 8, 2011

All immunoglobulin G molecules carry N-glycans, which modulate their biological activity. Changes in N-glycosylation of IgG associate with various diseases and affect the activity of therapeutic antibodies and intravenous immunoglobulins. We have developed a novel 96-well protein G monolithic plate and used it to rapidly isolate IgG from plasma of 2298 individuals from three isolated human populations. N-glycans were released by PNGase F, labeled with 2-aminobenzamide and analyzed by hydrophilic interaction chromatography with fluorescence detection. The majority of the structural features of the IgG glycome were consistent with previous studies, but sialylation was somewhat higher than reported previously.

Sialylation was particularly prominent in core fucosylated glycans containing two galactose residues and bisecting GlcNAc where median sialylation level was nearly 80%. Very high variability between individuals was observed, approximately three times higher than in the total plasma glycome. For example, neutral IgG glycans without core fucose varied between 1.3 and 19%, a difference that significantly affects the effector functions of natural antibodies, predisposing or protecting individuals from particular diseases. Heritability of IgG glycans was generally between 30 and 50%. The individual's age was associated with a significant decrease in galactose and increase of bisecting GlcNAc, whereas other functional elements of IgG glycosylation did not change much with age. Gender was not an important predictor for any IgG glycan. An important observation is that competition between glycosyltransferases, which occurs in vitro, did not appear to be relevant in vivo, indicating that the final glycan structures are not a simple result of competing enzymatic activities, but a carefully regulated outcome designed to meet the prevailing physiological needs.

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Z. Jiang, N. W. Smith, Z. Liu

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2350-2361

Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) has experienced increasing attention in recent years. Much research has been carried out in the area of HILIC separation mechanisms, column techniques and applications. Because of their good permeability, low resistance to mass transfer and easy preparation within capillaries, hydrophilic monolithic columns represent a trend among novel HILIC column techniques. This review attempts to present an overview of the preparation and applications of HILIC monolithic columns carried out in the past decade. The separation mechanism of various hydrophilic monolithic stationary phases is also reviewed.

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E. F. Maksimova, E. G. Vlakh, T. B. Tennikova

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2425-2431

A series of macroporous monolithic methacrylate-based materials was synthesized by in situ free radical UV-initiated copolymerization of functional monomers, such as glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), butyl methacrylate (BuMA), 2-aminoethyl methacrylate (AEMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and 2-cyanoethyl methacrylate (CEMA), with crosslinking agent, namely, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA). The materials obtained were applied as the stationary phases in simple and robust technique – planar chromatography (PLC). The method of separation layer fabrication representing macroporous polymer monolith bound to the specially prepared glass surface was developed and optimized. The GMA–EDMA and BuMA–EDMA matrixes were successfully applied for the separation of low molecular weight compounds (the mixture of several dies), as well as poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and polystyrene homopolymers of different molecular weights using reversed-phase mechanism. The materials based on copolymers AEMA–HEMA–EDMA and CEMA–HEMA–EDMA were used for normal-phase PLC separation of 2,4-dinitrophenyl amino acids and polystyrene standards.

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M. R. Etzel, T. Bund

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2445-2450

Proteins conjugated to neutral biopolymers are of keen interest to the food and pharmaceutical industries. Conjugated proteins are larger and more charge shielded than un-reacted proteins, making purification difficult using conventional beaded chromatographic supports because of slow mass transfer rates, weak binding, and viscous solutions. Past methods developed for pharmaceuticals are unsuitable for foods. In this work, a food-grade whey protein–dextran conjugate was purified from a feed solution also containing un-reacted protein and dextran using either a column packed with 800 mL of a beaded support that was specifically designed for purification of conjugated proteins or an 8 mL tube monolith. The monolith gave a similar dynamic binding capacity as the beaded support (4–6 g/L), at a 42-fold greater mass productivity, and 48-fold higher flow rate, albeit at somewhat lower conjugate purity. Performance of the monolith did not depend on flow rate. In conclusion, monoliths were found to be well suited for the purification of whey protein–dextran conjugates.

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I. Pulko, V. Smrekar, A. Podgornik, P. Krajnc

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2396-2401

Approximately 25 cm × 25 cm large sheets of crosslinked highly porous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate-co-ethylhexyl methacrylate) membranes with an average thicknesses between 285 and 565 μm were prepared by casting a high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) containing monomers onto glass substrates and subsequent polymerisation. Open cellular porous polyHIPE type membranes were obtained with large pores (cavity) sizes between 3 and 10 μm while interconnecting pores were between 1 and 3 μm. The percentage of ethylhexyl acrylate and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate influenced the flexibility and morphology of the resulting membranes. Porous membranes were chemically modified with diethylamine to yield functionalised supports for ion exchange chromatography. Cylindrical housings were used for positioning of the membranes and allowing flow of the mobile phase. Pulse experiments were used to study the flow characteristics and a homogeneous flow through the entire area of the membrane was found. Bovine serum albumin was purified by a 8 ml column containing functional membrane in modular shape; dynamic binding capacity was measured to be as high as 45 mg/ml.

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C. Valasek, J. Cole, F. Hensel, P. Ye, M. A. Conner, M. E. Ultee

BioProcess International, Vol. 9, No. 11, December 2011, pp. 28–37

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies have been used to treat cancer for many years (1). Another class of antibodies—immunoglobulin M (IgM)—has been overlooked in spite of offering unique advantages that make them highly desirable as cancer therapeutics. Serving a valuable function in our innate immune system, IgM antibodies are the first to be secreted when an abnormal cell is present (2). These antibodies play a critical role in recognition and elimination of infectious particles (3,4), in removal of intracellular components, and in immunosurveillance mechanisms against malignant cells (5,6). IgMs also can bind to multiple copies of a target on a cancer cell surface. Such high avidity leads to cross-linking and more effective cell killing (7).

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P. Gagnon, F. Hensel, S. Lee, S. Zaidi

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2405-2412

This study documents the presence of stable complexes between monoclonal IgM and genomic DNA in freshly harvested mammalian cell culture supernatants. 75% of the complex population elutes from size exclusion chromatography with the same retention volume as IgM. DNA comprises 24% of the complex mass, corresponding to an average of 347 base pairs per IgM molecule, distributed among fragments smaller than about 115 base pairs. Electrostatic interactions appear to provide most of the binding energy, with secondary stabilization by hydrogen bonding and metal affinity. DNA-dominant complexes are unretained by bioaffinity chromatography, while IgM-dominant complexes are retained and coelute with IgM. DNA-dominant complexes are repelled from cation exchangers, while IgM-dominant complexes are retained and partially dissociated. Partially dissociated forms elute in order of decreasing DNA content. The same pattern is observed with hydrophobic interaction chromatography. All complex compositions bind to anion exchangers and elute in order of increasing DNA content. A porous particle anion exchanger was unable to dissociate DNA from IgM. Monolithic anion exchangers, offering up to15-fold higher charge density, achieved nearly complete complex dissociation. The charge-dense monolith surface appears to outcompete IgM for the DNA. Monoliths also exhibit more than double the IgM dynamic binding capacity of the porous particle anion exchanger, apparently due to better surface accessibility and more efficient mass transfer.

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P. Gagnon, G. Rodriquez, S. Zaidi

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2402-2404

A basic method for dissociation and fractionation of monoclonal IgG heavy and light chain is described. It employs less noxious and hazardous reagents than the classical mercaptoethanol/propionic acid process and replaces size exclusion chromatography with cation exchange on a monolith to improve productivity. Significant scope remains to refine the conditions. The method can be applied to other disulfide bonded proteins with significant affinity for cation exchangers.

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S. Neff, A. Jungbauer

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2374-2380

We have developed a method for quantification of a specific monoclonal IgM directed toward embryonic stem cells based on a peptide affinity monolith. A peptide affinity ligand with the sequence C–C–H–Q–R–L–S–Q–R–K was obtained by epitope mapping using peptide SPOT synthesis. The peptide ligand was covalently immobilized by coupling the N-terminal cysteine to a monolithic disk that was previously modified with iodated spacer molecules. The monolithic disc was used for quantification of purified IgM and for IgM present in mammalian cell culture supernatant. We observed 17% unspecific binding of IgM to the monolithic disk and additionally a product loss in the flow through of 20%. Nevertheless, calibration curves had high correlation coefficients and inter/intra-assay variability experiments proved sufficient precision of the method. A limit of quantification of 51.69 μg/mL for purified IgM and 48.40 μg/mL for IgM in cell culture supernatant could be calculated. The binding capacity was consistent within the period of the study which included more than 200 cycles. The analysis time of less than 2 min is an advantage over existing chromatographic methods that rely on pore diffusion.

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A. Mönster, O. Hiller, D. Grüger, R. Blasczyk, C. Kasper

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 706–710

Monolithic columns have gained increasing attention as stationary phases for the separation of biomolecules and biopharmaceuticals. In the present work the performance of monolithic convective interaction media (CIM®) chromatography for the purification of blood group antigens was established. The proteins employed in this study are derived from blood group antigens Knops, JMH and Scianna, equipped both with a His-tag and with a V5-tag by which they can be purified. In a first step a monoclonal antibody directed against the V5-tag was immobilized on a CIM® Disk with epoxy chemistry. After this, the immobilized CIM® Disk was used in immuno-affinity chromatography to purify the three blood group antigens from cell culture supernatant. Up-scaling of the applied technology was carried out using CIM® Tubes. In comparison to conventional affinity chromatography, blood group antigens were also purified via His-tag using a HiTrap® metal-affinity column. The two purifications have been compared regarding purity, yield and purification speed. Using the monolithic support, it was possible to isolate the blood group antigens with a higher flow rate than using the conventional bed-packed column.

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R. D. Arrua, C. I. Alvarez Igarzabal

J. Sep. Sci. 2011, 34, 1974–1987

In the early 1990s, three research groups simultaneously developed continuous macroporous rod-shaped polymeric systems to eliminate the problem of flow through the interparticle spaces generally presented by the chromatography columns that use particles as filler. The great advantage of those materials, forming a continuous phase rod, is to increase the mass transfer by convective transport, as the mobile phase is forced to go through all means of separation, in contrast to particulate media where the mobile phase flows through the interparticle spaces. Due to their special characteristics, the monolithic polymers are used as base-supports in different separation techniques, those chromatographic processes being the most important and, to a greater extent, those involving the separation of biomolecules as in the case of affinity chromatography. This mini-review reports the contributions of several groups to the development of macroporous monoliths and their modification by immobilization of specific ligands on the products for their application in affinity chromatography.

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S. Neff, A. Jungbauer

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2374–2380

We have developed a method for quantification of a specific monoclonal IgM directed toward embryonic stem cells based on a peptide affinity monolith. A peptide affinity ligand with the sequence C–C–H–Q–R–L–S–Q–R–K was obtained by epitope mapping using peptide SPOT synthesis. The peptide ligand was covalently immobilized by coupling the N-terminal cysteine to a monolithic disk that was previously modified with iodated spacer molecules. The monolithic disc was used for quantification of purified IgM and for IgM present in mammalian cell culture supernatant. We observed 17% unspecific binding of IgM to the monolithic disk and additionally a product loss in the flow through of 20%. Nevertheless, calibration curves had high correlation coefficients and inter/intra-assay variability experiments proved sufficient precision of the method. A limit of quantification of 51.69 μg/mL for purified IgM and 48.40 μg/mL for IgM in cell culture supernatant could be calculated. The binding capacity was consistent within the period of the study which included more than 200 cycles. The analysis time of less than 2 min is an advantage over existing chromatographic methods that rely on pore diffusion.

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H. Shirataki, C. Sudoh, T. Eshima, Y. Yokoyama, K. Okuyama

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2381–2388

It is widely recognized that membrane adsorbers are powerful tools for the purification of biopharmaceutical protein products and for this reason a novel hollow-fiber AEX type membrane adsorber has been developed. The membrane is characterized by grafted chains including DEA ligands affixed to the pore surfaces of the membrane. In order to estimate the membrane performance, (1) dynamic binding capacities for pure BSA and DNA over a range of solution conductivity and pH, (2) virus reduction by flow-through process, and (3) HCP and DNA removal from cell culture, are evaluated and compared with several other anion-exchange membranes. The novel hollow-fiber membrane is tolerant of high salt concentration when adsorbing BSA and DNA. When challenged with a solution containing IgG the membrane has high impurity removal further indicating this hollow-fiber based membrane adsorber is an effective tool for purification of biopharmaceutical protein products including IgG.

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