2011

E. F. Maksimova, E. G. Vlakh, T. B. Tennikova

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2425-2431

A series of macroporous monolithic methacrylate-based materials was synthesized by in situ free radical UV-initiated copolymerization of functional monomers, such as glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), butyl methacrylate (BuMA), 2-aminoethyl methacrylate (AEMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and 2-cyanoethyl methacrylate (CEMA), with crosslinking agent, namely, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA). The materials obtained were applied as the stationary phases in simple and robust technique – planar chromatography (PLC). The method of separation layer fabrication representing macroporous polymer monolith bound to the specially prepared glass surface was developed and optimized. The GMA–EDMA and BuMA–EDMA matrixes were successfully applied for the separation of low molecular weight compounds (the mixture of several dies), as well as poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and polystyrene homopolymers of different molecular weights using reversed-phase mechanism. The materials based on copolymers AEMA–HEMA–EDMA and CEMA–HEMA–EDMA were used for normal-phase PLC separation of 2,4-dinitrophenyl amino acids and polystyrene standards.

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M. R. Etzel, T. Bund

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2445-2450

Proteins conjugated to neutral biopolymers are of keen interest to the food and pharmaceutical industries. Conjugated proteins are larger and more charge shielded than un-reacted proteins, making purification difficult using conventional beaded chromatographic supports because of slow mass transfer rates, weak binding, and viscous solutions. Past methods developed for pharmaceuticals are unsuitable for foods. In this work, a food-grade whey protein–dextran conjugate was purified from a feed solution also containing un-reacted protein and dextran using either a column packed with 800 mL of a beaded support that was specifically designed for purification of conjugated proteins or an 8 mL tube monolith. The monolith gave a similar dynamic binding capacity as the beaded support (4–6 g/L), at a 42-fold greater mass productivity, and 48-fold higher flow rate, albeit at somewhat lower conjugate purity. Performance of the monolith did not depend on flow rate. In conclusion, monoliths were found to be well suited for the purification of whey protein–dextran conjugates.

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I. Pulko, V. Smrekar, A. Podgornik, P. Krajnc

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2396-2401

Approximately 25 cm × 25 cm large sheets of crosslinked highly porous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate-co-ethylhexyl methacrylate) membranes with an average thicknesses between 285 and 565 μm were prepared by casting a high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) containing monomers onto glass substrates and subsequent polymerisation. Open cellular porous polyHIPE type membranes were obtained with large pores (cavity) sizes between 3 and 10 μm while interconnecting pores were between 1 and 3 μm. The percentage of ethylhexyl acrylate and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate influenced the flexibility and morphology of the resulting membranes. Porous membranes were chemically modified with diethylamine to yield functionalised supports for ion exchange chromatography. Cylindrical housings were used for positioning of the membranes and allowing flow of the mobile phase. Pulse experiments were used to study the flow characteristics and a homogeneous flow through the entire area of the membrane was found. Bovine serum albumin was purified by a 8 ml column containing functional membrane in modular shape; dynamic binding capacity was measured to be as high as 45 mg/ml.

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C. Valasek, J. Cole, F. Hensel, P. Ye, M. A. Conner, M. E. Ultee

BioProcess International, Vol. 9, No. 11, December 2011, pp. 28–37

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies have been used to treat cancer for many years (1). Another class of antibodies—immunoglobulin M (IgM)—has been overlooked in spite of offering unique advantages that make them highly desirable as cancer therapeutics. Serving a valuable function in our innate immune system, IgM antibodies are the first to be secreted when an abnormal cell is present (2). These antibodies play a critical role in recognition and elimination of infectious particles (3,4), in removal of intracellular components, and in immunosurveillance mechanisms against malignant cells (5,6). IgMs also can bind to multiple copies of a target on a cancer cell surface. Such high avidity leads to cross-linking and more effective cell killing (7).

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P. Gagnon, F. Hensel, S. Lee, S. Zaidi

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2405-2412

This study documents the presence of stable complexes between monoclonal IgM and genomic DNA in freshly harvested mammalian cell culture supernatants. 75% of the complex population elutes from size exclusion chromatography with the same retention volume as IgM. DNA comprises 24% of the complex mass, corresponding to an average of 347 base pairs per IgM molecule, distributed among fragments smaller than about 115 base pairs. Electrostatic interactions appear to provide most of the binding energy, with secondary stabilization by hydrogen bonding and metal affinity. DNA-dominant complexes are unretained by bioaffinity chromatography, while IgM-dominant complexes are retained and coelute with IgM. DNA-dominant complexes are repelled from cation exchangers, while IgM-dominant complexes are retained and partially dissociated. Partially dissociated forms elute in order of decreasing DNA content. The same pattern is observed with hydrophobic interaction chromatography. All complex compositions bind to anion exchangers and elute in order of increasing DNA content. A porous particle anion exchanger was unable to dissociate DNA from IgM. Monolithic anion exchangers, offering up to15-fold higher charge density, achieved nearly complete complex dissociation. The charge-dense monolith surface appears to outcompete IgM for the DNA. Monoliths also exhibit more than double the IgM dynamic binding capacity of the porous particle anion exchanger, apparently due to better surface accessibility and more efficient mass transfer.

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P. Gagnon, G. Rodriquez, S. Zaidi

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2402-2404

A basic method for dissociation and fractionation of monoclonal IgG heavy and light chain is described. It employs less noxious and hazardous reagents than the classical mercaptoethanol/propionic acid process and replaces size exclusion chromatography with cation exchange on a monolith to improve productivity. Significant scope remains to refine the conditions. The method can be applied to other disulfide bonded proteins with significant affinity for cation exchangers.

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S. Neff, A. Jungbauer

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2374-2380

We have developed a method for quantification of a specific monoclonal IgM directed toward embryonic stem cells based on a peptide affinity monolith. A peptide affinity ligand with the sequence C–C–H–Q–R–L–S–Q–R–K was obtained by epitope mapping using peptide SPOT synthesis. The peptide ligand was covalently immobilized by coupling the N-terminal cysteine to a monolithic disk that was previously modified with iodated spacer molecules. The monolithic disc was used for quantification of purified IgM and for IgM present in mammalian cell culture supernatant. We observed 17% unspecific binding of IgM to the monolithic disk and additionally a product loss in the flow through of 20%. Nevertheless, calibration curves had high correlation coefficients and inter/intra-assay variability experiments proved sufficient precision of the method. A limit of quantification of 51.69 μg/mL for purified IgM and 48.40 μg/mL for IgM in cell culture supernatant could be calculated. The binding capacity was consistent within the period of the study which included more than 200 cycles. The analysis time of less than 2 min is an advantage over existing chromatographic methods that rely on pore diffusion.

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A. Mönster, O. Hiller, D. Grüger, R. Blasczyk, C. Kasper

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 706–710

Monolithic columns have gained increasing attention as stationary phases for the separation of biomolecules and biopharmaceuticals. In the present work the performance of monolithic convective interaction media (CIM®) chromatography for the purification of blood group antigens was established. The proteins employed in this study are derived from blood group antigens Knops, JMH and Scianna, equipped both with a His-tag and with a V5-tag by which they can be purified. In a first step a monoclonal antibody directed against the V5-tag was immobilized on a CIM® Disk with epoxy chemistry. After this, the immobilized CIM® Disk was used in immuno-affinity chromatography to purify the three blood group antigens from cell culture supernatant. Up-scaling of the applied technology was carried out using CIM® Tubes. In comparison to conventional affinity chromatography, blood group antigens were also purified via His-tag using a HiTrap® metal-affinity column. The two purifications have been compared regarding purity, yield and purification speed. Using the monolithic support, it was possible to isolate the blood group antigens with a higher flow rate than using the conventional bed-packed column.

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R. D. Arrua, C. I. Alvarez Igarzabal

J. Sep. Sci. 2011, 34, 1974–1987

In the early 1990s, three research groups simultaneously developed continuous macroporous rod-shaped polymeric systems to eliminate the problem of flow through the interparticle spaces generally presented by the chromatography columns that use particles as filler. The great advantage of those materials, forming a continuous phase rod, is to increase the mass transfer by convective transport, as the mobile phase is forced to go through all means of separation, in contrast to particulate media where the mobile phase flows through the interparticle spaces. Due to their special characteristics, the monolithic polymers are used as base-supports in different separation techniques, those chromatographic processes being the most important and, to a greater extent, those involving the separation of biomolecules as in the case of affinity chromatography. This mini-review reports the contributions of several groups to the development of macroporous monoliths and their modification by immobilization of specific ligands on the products for their application in affinity chromatography.

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S. Neff, A. Jungbauer

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2374–2380

We have developed a method for quantification of a specific monoclonal IgM directed toward embryonic stem cells based on a peptide affinity monolith. A peptide affinity ligand with the sequence C–C–H–Q–R–L–S–Q–R–K was obtained by epitope mapping using peptide SPOT synthesis. The peptide ligand was covalently immobilized by coupling the N-terminal cysteine to a monolithic disk that was previously modified with iodated spacer molecules. The monolithic disc was used for quantification of purified IgM and for IgM present in mammalian cell culture supernatant. We observed 17% unspecific binding of IgM to the monolithic disk and additionally a product loss in the flow through of 20%. Nevertheless, calibration curves had high correlation coefficients and inter/intra-assay variability experiments proved sufficient precision of the method. A limit of quantification of 51.69 μg/mL for purified IgM and 48.40 μg/mL for IgM in cell culture supernatant could be calculated. The binding capacity was consistent within the period of the study which included more than 200 cycles. The analysis time of less than 2 min is an advantage over existing chromatographic methods that rely on pore diffusion.

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H. Shirataki, C. Sudoh, T. Eshima, Y. Yokoyama, K. Okuyama

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2381–2388

It is widely recognized that membrane adsorbers are powerful tools for the purification of biopharmaceutical protein products and for this reason a novel hollow-fiber AEX type membrane adsorber has been developed. The membrane is characterized by grafted chains including DEA ligands affixed to the pore surfaces of the membrane. In order to estimate the membrane performance, (1) dynamic binding capacities for pure BSA and DNA over a range of solution conductivity and pH, (2) virus reduction by flow-through process, and (3) HCP and DNA removal from cell culture, are evaluated and compared with several other anion-exchange membranes. The novel hollow-fiber membrane is tolerant of high salt concentration when adsorbing BSA and DNA. When challenged with a solution containing IgG the membrane has high impurity removal further indicating this hollow-fiber based membrane adsorber is an effective tool for purification of biopharmaceutical protein products including IgG.

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F. Smrekar, M. Ciringer, J. Jančar, P. Raspor, A. Štrancar, A. Podgornik

Journal of Separation Science 2011, 34, 2152-2158

A process for manufacturing large quantities of lytic bacteriophages was developed. Determination of cultivation termination was found to be essential to achieve high phage quantity and purity. When optimal cultivation termination is missed, phage fraction was found to be highly contaminated with deoxyribonucleic acid released from Escherichia coli cells. Besides, an already established method for monitoring of phage cultivation based on optical density, where its peak indicates point when maximal phage titer is achieved, a new indirect chromatographic method using methacrylate monoliths is proposed for on-line estimation of phage titer. It is based on the measurement of released E. coli deoxyribonucleic acid and shows high correlation with phage titer obtained from plaque assay. Its main advantage is that the information is obtained within few minutes. In addition, the same method can also be used to determine purity of a final phage fraction. Two strategies to obtain highly pure phage fractions are proposed: an immediate purification of phage lysate using monolithic columns or an addition of EDTA before chromatographic purification. The developed protocol was shown to give phage purity above 90% and it is completed within one working day including cultivation and phage titer in the final formulation using developed chromatographic method.

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C. Burden, J. Jin, A. Podgornik, D. G. Bracewell

Journal of Chromatography B, 880 (2012) 82- 89

Monoliths are an alternative stationary phase format to conventional particle based media for large biomolecules. Conventional resins suffer from limited capacities and flow rates when used for viruses, virus-like particles (VLP) and other nanoplex materials. The monolith structure provides a more open pore structure to improve accessibility for these materials and better mass transport from convective flow and reduced pressure drops. To examine the performance of this format for bioprocessing we selected the challenging capture of a VLP from clarified yeast homogenate. Using a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae host it was found hydrophobic interaction based separation using a hydroxyl derivatised monolith had the best performance. The monolith was then compared to a known beaded resin method, where the dynamic binding capacity was shown to be three-fold superior for the monolith with equivalent 90% recovery of the VLP. To understand the impact of the crude feed material confocal microscopy was used to visualise lipid contaminants, deriving from the homogenised yeast. It was seen that the lipid formed a layer on top of the column, even after regeneration of the column with isopropanol, resulting in increasing pressure drops with the number of operational cycles. Removal of the lipid pre-column significantly reduces the amount and rate of this fouling process. Using Amberlite/XAD-4 beads around 70% of the lipid was removed, with a loss of VLP around 20%. Applying a reduced lipid feed versus an untreated feed further increased the dynamic binding capacity of the monolith from 0.11 mg/mL column to 0.25 mg/mL column.

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L. Urbas, B. Lah Jarc, M. Barut, M. Zochowska, J. Chroboczek

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2451-2459

Adenovirus type 3 dodecahedric virus-like particles (Ad3 VLP) are an interesting delivery vector. They penetrate animal cells in culture very efficiently and up to 300,000 Ad3 VLP can be observed in one cell. The purification of such particles usually consists of several steps. In these work we describe the method development and optimization for the purification of Ad3 VLP using the Convective Interaction Media analytical columns (CIMac). Results obtained with the CIMac were compared to the already established two-step purification protocol for Ad3 VLP based on sucrose density gradient ultracentifugation and the Q-Sepharose ion-exchange column. Pure, concentrated and bioactive VLP were obtained and characterized by several analytical methods. The recovery of the Ad3 VLP was more than 50% and the purified fraction was almost completely depleted of DNA; less than 1% of DNA was present. The purification protocol was shortened from five days to one day and remarkably high penetration efficacy of the CIMac-purified vector was retained. Additionally, CIMac QA analytical column has proven to be applicable for the final and in-process control of various Ad3 VLP samples.

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A. Trauner, M. H. Bennett, H. D. Williams

PLoS ONE 6(2): e16273. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0016273

We report the development of a rapid chromatographic method for the isolation of bacterial ribosomes from crude cell lysates in less than ten minutes. Our separation is based on the use of strong anion exchange monolithic columns. Using a simple stepwise elution program we were able to purify ribosomes whose composition is comparable to those isolated by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation, as confirmed by quantitative proteomic analysis (iTRAQ). The speed and simplicity of this approach could accelerate the study of many different aspects of ribosomal biology.

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M. J. Shin, L. Tan, M. H. Jeong, J.-H. Kim, W.-S. Choe

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 5273-5278

Immobilized metal affinity monolith column as a new class of chromatographic support is shown to be superior to conventional particle-based column as plasmid DNA (pDNA) purification platform. By harnessing the affinity of endotoxin to copper ions in the solution, a majority of endotoxin (90%) was removed from the alkaline cell lysate using CuCl2-induced precipitation. RNA and remaining endotoxin were subsequently removed to below detection limit with minimal loss of pDNA using either monolith or particle-based column. Monolith column has the additional advantage of feed concentration and flowrate-independent dynamic binding capacity for RNA molecules, enabling purification process to be conducted at high feed RNA concentration and flowrate. The use of monolith column gives three fold increased productivity of pDNA as compared to particle-based column, providing a more rapid and economical platform for pDNA purification.

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2010

P. Gagnon

BioProcess International, Nov 2010

The enabling value of monoliths was strongly in evidence at the 4th International Monolith Symposium, held 29 May – 2 June in the Adriatic resort city of Portoroz, Slovenia. Forty-seven oral presentations and 34 posters highlighted important advances in vaccines, gene therapy, phage therapy for infectious disease, and monoclonal antibodies, as well as continuing advances in the performance of monoliths themselves. As these fields advance in parallel, it becomes increasingly apparent that monoliths offer industrial capabilities substantially beyond traditional methods.

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M. Abe, P. Akbarzaderaleh, M. Hamachi, N. Yoshimoto, S.Yamamoto

Biotechnol. J. 2010, 5, 477-483

The retention and binding mechanisms in electrostatic interaction-based chromatography (ion-exchange chromatography) of PEGylated proteins (covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol chains to protein) were investigated using our previously developed model. Lysozyme and bovine serum albumin were chosen as model proteins. The retention volume of PEGylated proteins shifted to lower elution volumes with increasing PEG molecular weight compared with the non-modified (native) protein retention volume. However, PEGylation did not affect the number of binding sites appreciably. The enzyme activity of PEGylated lysozyme measured with a standard insoluble substrate in suspension decreased considerably, whereas the activity with a soluble small-molecule substrate did not drop significantly. These findings indicate that when a protein is mono-PEG-ylated, the binding site is not affected and the elution volume reduces due to the steric hindrance between PEGylated protein and ion-exchange ligand.

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R. Nian, D. S. Kim, T. Nguyen, L. Tan, C.-W. Kim, I.-K. Yoo, W. S. Choe

Journal of Chromatography A, 1217 (2010) 5910-5949

Toxic heavy metal pollution is a global problem occurring in air, soil as well as water. There is a need for a more cost effective, renewable remediation technique, but most importantly, for a recovery method that is selective for one specific metal of concern. Phage display technology has been used as a powerful tool in the discovery of peptides capable of exhibiting specific affinity to various metals or metal ions. However, traditional phage display is mainly conducted in batch mode, resulting in only one equilibrium state hence low-efficiency selection. It is also unable to monitor the selection process in real time mode. In this study, phage display technique was incorporated with chromatography procedure with the use of a monolithic column, facilitating multiple phage-binding equilibrium states and online monitoring of the selection process in search of affinity peptides to Pb2+. In total, 17 candidate peptides were found and their specificity toward Pb2+ was further investigated with bead-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA). A highly specific Pb2+ binding peptide ThrAsnThrLeuSerAsnAsn (TNTLSNN) was obtained. Based on our knowledge, this is the first report on a new chromatographic biopanning method coupled with monolithic column for the selection of metal ion specific binding peptides. It is expected that this monolith-based chromatographic biopanning will provide a promising approach for a high throughput screening of affinity peptides cognitive of a wide range of target species.

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R. R. Prasanna, M. A. Vijayalakshmi

Journal of Chromatography A, 1217 (2010) 3660–3667

Dynamic binding capacity (DBC) of commercial metal-chelate methacrylate monolith-convective interaction media (CIM) was performed with commercial human immunoglobulin G (IgG) (Cohn fraction II, III). Monoliths are an attractive stationary phase for purification of large biomolecules because they exhibit very low back pressure even at high flow rates and flow-unaffected binding properties. Adsorption of IgG onto CIM-IDA disk immobilized with Cu2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ were studied with Tris-acetate (TA), phosphate-acetate (PA) and MMA (MES, MOPS and acetate) buffer systems at different flow rates. Adsorption and elution of IgG varied with different buffers and adsorption of IgG was maximum with MMA buffer. Adsorption of human IgG from Cohn fractions (II, III) was high when Cu2+ was used as ligand. CIM-IDA disk showed dynamic binding capacity in the range of 14–16 mg/ml with Cu2+ and 7–9 mg/ml with Ni2+ for human IgG with MMA buffer. In the case of CIM-IDA-Zn2+ column, the binding capacity was only about 0.5 mg/ml of support. Different desorption strategies like lowering of pH and increasing of competitive agent were also studied to achieve maximum recovery. Chromatographic runs with human serum and mouse ascites fluid were also carried out with metal chelate methacrylate monolithic disk and the results indicate the potential of this technique for polyclonal human IgG and monoclonal IgG purification from complex biological samples.

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