A. Mönster, O. Hiller, D. Grüger, R. Blasczyk, C. Kasper

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 706–710

Monolithic columns have gained increasing attention as stationary phases for the separation of biomolecules and biopharmaceuticals. In the present work the performance of monolithic convective interaction media (CIM®) chromatography for the purification of blood group antigens was established. The proteins employed in this study are derived from blood group antigens Knops, JMH and Scianna, equipped both with a His-tag and with a V5-tag by which they can be purified. In a first step a monoclonal antibody directed against the V5-tag was immobilized on a CIM® Disk with epoxy chemistry. After this, the immobilized CIM® Disk was used in immuno-affinity chromatography to purify the three blood group antigens from cell culture supernatant. Up-scaling of the applied technology was carried out using CIM® Tubes. In comparison to conventional affinity chromatography, blood group antigens were also purified via His-tag using a HiTrap® metal-affinity column. The two purifications have been compared regarding purity, yield and purification speed. Using the monolithic support, it was possible to isolate the blood group antigens with a higher flow rate than using the conventional bed-packed column.

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D. Ren, N. A. Penner, B. E. Slentz, H. D. Inerowicz, M. Rybalko, F. E. Regnier

Journal of Chromatography A, 1031 (2004) 87–92(2004) 87–92

Immobilized copper(II) affinity chromatography [Cu(II)-immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC)] has been used in proteomics to simplify sample mixtures by selecting histidine-containing peptides from proteolytic digests. This paper examines the specificity of four different support materials with an iminodiacetic acid (IDA) stationary phase in the selection of only histidine-containing peptides in the single step capture-release mode. Three of the sorbents examined were commercially available: HiTrap Chelating HP (agarose), TSK Chelate-5PW, and Poros 20MC. IDA was also immobilized on CIM discs (monolithic glycidylmethacrylate-ethylene dimethacrylate). Tryptic digests of transferrin and β-galactosidase were used as model samples to evaluate these sorbents. It was found that among the examined matrices, the TSK Chelate-5PW sorbent bound histidine-containing peptides the strongest, while Poros matrix was found to have a high degree of non-specific bindings. Agarose-based columns showed relatively high selectivity and specificity.

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C. K. Zacharis, E. A. Kalaitzantonakis, A. Podgornik, G. Theodoridis

Journal of Chromatography A, 1144 (2007) 126–134

In this study, sequential injection affinity chromatography was used for drug–protein interactions studies. The analytical system used consisted of a sequential injection analysis (SIA) manifold directly connected with convective interaction media (CIM) monolithic epoxy disks modified by ligand-immobilization of protein. A non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug, naproxen (NAP) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were selected as model drug and protein, respectively. The SIA system was used for sampling, introduction and propulsion of drug towards to the monolithic column. Association equilibrium constants, binding capacity at various temperatures and thermodynamic parameters (free energy ΔG, enthalpy ΔH) of the binding reaction of naproxen are calculated by using frontal analysis mathematics. The variation of incubation time and its effect in on-line binding mode was also studied. The results indicated that naproxen had an association equilibrium constant of 2.90 × 106 M-1 at pH 7.4 and 39 °C for a single binding site. The associated change in enthalpy (ΔH) was −27.36 kcal mol-1 and the change in entropy (ΔS) was −73 cal mol-1 K-1 for a single type of binding sites. The location of the binding region was examined by competitive binding experiments using a biphosphonate drug, alendronate (ALD), as a competitor agent. It was found that the two drugs occupy the same class of binding sites on BSA. All measurements were performed with fluorescence (λext = 230 nm, λem = 350 nm) and spectrophotometric detection (λ = 280 nm).

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R. Hahn, E. Berger, K. Pflegerl, A. Jungbauer

Anal. Chem. 2003, 75, 543-548

When small ligands are immobilized onto a porous chromatography medium, only a limited number of binding sites contributes to the interaction with the target molecule. The main part of the ligand molecules is distributed on sites that are not accessible for the target protein due to steric hindrance. To direct the ligand into a well-accessible position, the ligand was conjugated to a large molecule that acted as a placeholder during the immobilization step. Then the placeholder molecule was cleaved off and washed out. Two linear peptides with affinity for lysozyme and human blood coagulation factor VIII, respectively, were studied as model systems. The protected peptide ligand was covalently linked to a 20-kDa poly(ethylene glycol) molecule containing an acid-labile linker. After selective deprotection of the peptide and purification, immobilization of this conjugate on a preactivated chromatography matrix was performed alternatively through the free N-terminus, the ε-amino group of lysine, or the sulfohydryl group of cysteine. After the immobilization reaction, the spacer molecule and remaining protecting groups were cleaved off and the gels were tested by affinity chromatography. This novel immobilization technique substantially increased the binding capacity and the ligand utilization for the target protein, and site-specific immobilization could be demonstrated.

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K. Pflegerl,A. Podgornik, E. Berger, A. Jungbauer

J. Comb. Chem. 2002, 4, 33-37

Solid-phase peptide synthesis was performed on glycidyle methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate monoliths using Fmoc chemistry. The native epoxy groups were amino-functionalized by reaction with ethylenediamine or ammonia ions. A peptide directed against human blood coagulation factor VIII was synthesized as a model peptide. Amino acid analysis revealed the correct amino acid ratio as present in the sequence. The ligand density of 5 μmol/mL was equal to that achieved with conventional peptide immobilization via epoxy groups. These supports were directly used as peptide affinity chromatography matrixes. The functionality of the CIM monolithic supports was proven by affinity chromatography of factor VIII. The ammonia-functionalized support performed with low hydrophobicity and did not show unspecific adsorption of proteins.

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L. Urbas, P. Brne, B. Gabo, M. Barut, M. Strlič, T. Čerk Petrič, A. Štrancar

Journal of Chromatography A, 1216 (2009) 2689–2694

Human serum albumin (HSA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) represent over 75% of all proteins present in human plasma. These high-abundance proteins prevent the detection of low-abundance proteins which are potential markers for various diseases. The depletion of HSA and IgG is therefore essential for further proteome analysis. In this paper we describe the optimization of conditions for selective depletion of HSA and IgG using affinity and pseudo-affinity chromatography. A BIA Separations CIM (convective interaction media) Protein G disk was applied for the removal of IgG and the Mimetic Blue SA A6XL stationary phase for the removal of HSA. The binding and the elution buffer for CIM Protein G disk were chosen on the basis of the peak shape. The dynamic binding capacity was determined. It was shown to be dependent on the buffer system used and independent of the flow rate and of the concentration of IgG. Beside the binding capacity for the IgG standard, the binding capacity was also determined for IgG in human plasma. The Mimetic Blue SA A6XL column was characterized using human plasma. The selectivity of the depletion was dependent on the amount of human plasma that was loaded on the column. After the conditions on both supports had been optimized, the Mimetic Blue SA A6XL stationary phase was combined with the CIM Protein G disk in order to simultaneously deplete samples of human plasma. A centrifuge spin column that enables the removal of IgG and HSA from 20 μL of human plasma was designed. The results of the depletion were examined using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

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L. G. Berruex, R. Freitag, T. B. Tennikova

Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 24 (2000) 95–104

A novel biochromatographic principle is introduced taking the quantitative analysis of affinity interactions between antibodies and immobilized group specific ligands (protein A, G, and L) as example. The name high performance monolith affinity chromatography (HPMAC) is proposed for this technique. HPMAC uses rigid, macroporous monoliths, so-called convective interaction media (CIM™)-disks, as stationary phase. An optimized procedure is described for the covalent immobilization of the group specific affinity ligands to such disks. The binding of polyclonal bovine IgG and a recombinant human antibody (type IgG1-κ) to all affinity disks is discussed. An essential feature of HPMAC is its compatibility to unusually high mobile phase flow rates (>4 ml/min). Chromatographic experiments are thus completed within seconds without significant loss in binding capacity and retentive power. This makes HPMAC a promising tool for applications in fast process monitoring or screening. As an example for the former, the direct quantitative isolation of recombinant antibodies from serum-free culture supernatant is demonstrated.

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G. A. Platonova, T. B. Tennikova

Journal of Chromatography A, 1065 (2005) 75–81(2005) 75–81

High-performance monolithic disk affinity chromatography was applied to the investigation of formation of complexes between (1) complementary polyriboadenylic and polyribouridylic acids, e.g. poly(A) and poly(U), respectively, (2) poly(A) and synthetic polycation poly(allylamine), pAA. Polyriboadenylic acid and poly(allylamine) were immobilized on macroporous disks (CIM disks). Quantitative parameters of affinity interactions between macromolecules were established using frontal analysis at different flow rates.

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L. G. Berruex, R. Freitag

Methods for Affinity-Based Separations of Enzymes and Proteins Methods and Tools in Biosciences and Medicine 2002, 82-114

Macroporous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (GMAEDM A) disks have been introduced in the late eighties as novel stationary phases for biochromatography, which putatively offer new possibilities, especially for the separation/analysis of large biologicals such as proteins [1]. Various stationary phases based on the GMA-EDM A chemistry are commercially available from BIA Separations d.o.o., Slovenia, under the trade name of CIM® (Convective Interaction Media) disks.

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G. A. Platonova, T. B. Tennikova

Journal of Chromatography A, 1065 (2005) 19–28(2005) 19–28

The technology for preparation of rigid macroporous polymers suggested in the late 1980s has become a powerful instrument for the development of a novel scientific and practical field. At present, monolithic stationary phases are widely used in the processes of bioseparation (chromatography), bioconversion (enzyme reactors) as well as in other processes based on interphase mass distribution (for example, solid phase peptide and oligonucleotide synthesis). Bioaffinity modes of suggested dynamic methods are very promising for their use in different analytical processes (immunological, ecological, medical and other types of analytical monitoring), preparative isolation of blood proteins such as myoglobin, hemoglobin, immunoglobulins, etc. and also recombinant products directly from cell supernatants or lysates. For the first time, it has been shown that bioaffinity pairing with participation of immobilized on carefully designed rigid supports is very fast and the whole process of affinity separation can be realized within second time scale. The principle of bioaffinity recognition is generaly at the construction of biological reactors (for example, enzyme reactors). Improved kinetics of biocatalized reactions is explained by a minimal influence on the surface of the used sorbent. Very perspective field is the use of discussed monoliths for solid phase chemical synthesis of fragments of biological macromolecules (peptides and oligonucleotides). Several examples of these applications will be presented and discussed.

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R. Hahn, A. Podgornik, M. Merhar, E. Schallaun, A. Jungbauer

Anal. Chem. 2001, 73, 5126-5132

An affinity monolith with a novel immobilization strategy was developed leading to a tailored pore structure. Hereby the ligand is conjugated to one of the monomers of the polymerization mixture prior to polymerization. After the polymerization, a monolithic structure was obtained either ready to use for affinity chromatography or ready for coupling of additional ligand to further increase the binding capacity. The model ligand, a peptide directed against lysozyme, was conjugated to glycidyl methacrylate prior to the polymerization. With this conjugate, glycidyl methacrylate, and ethylene dimethacrylate, a monolith was formed and tested with lysozyme. A better ligand presentation was achieved indicated by the higher affinity constant compared to a conventional sorbent.

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K. Amatschek, R. Necina, R. Hahn, E. Schallaun, H. Schwinn, D. Josić, A. Jungbauer

Journal of Separation science, 23 (2000) 47-58

FVIII is a very complex molecule of great therapeutic significance. It is purified by a sequence of chromatographic steps including immunoaffinity chromatography. A peptide affinity chromatography method has been developed using peptides derived from a combinatorial library. Spot technology using cellulose sheets has been applied for this purpose. The dual positional scanning strategy was used for identification of the amino acids in random positions. Approximately 5000 possible candidates found in the first screening round were reduced to a panel of 36. Six candidates have been selected empirically. Five peptides seem to be directed against the light chain of FVIII, one peptide seems to be directed against the heavy chain. The peptides have been immobilized on conventional beaded material and CIM polymethacrylate monoliths. Much better performance with respect to capacity and selectivity has been observed with the monolithic material. Exposure of the ligand and its ensuing accessibility are responsible for these properties.

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A. Tscheliessnig, A. Jungbauer

Journal of Chromatography A, 1216 (2009) 2676-2682

High-performance monolith affinity chromatography employing protein A resins has been introduced previously for the fast purification of IgG from different sources. Here we describe the design and evaluation of a fast and specific method for quantitation of IgG from purified samples as well as crude supernatant from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We used a commercially available affinity monolith with protein A as affinity ligand (CIM protein A HLD disk). Interferences of CHO host cell proteins with the quantitation of IgG from CHO supernatant were eliminated by a careful choice of the equilibration buffer. With this method developed, it is possible to quantify IgG within 5 min in a concentration range of 23–250 μg/ml. The calibration range of the method could be extended from 4 to 1000 μg/ml by adjusting the injection volume. The method was successfully validated by measuring the low limit of detection and quantification, inter- and intra-day precision and selectivity.

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S. Neff, A. Jungbauer

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2374-2380

We have developed a method for quantification of a specific monoclonal IgM directed toward embryonic stem cells based on a peptide affinity monolith. A peptide affinity ligand with the sequence C–C–H–Q–R–L–S–Q–R–K was obtained by epitope mapping using peptide SPOT synthesis. The peptide ligand was covalently immobilized by coupling the N-terminal cysteine to a monolithic disk that was previously modified with iodated spacer molecules. The monolithic disc was used for quantification of purified IgM and for IgM present in mammalian cell culture supernatant. We observed 17% unspecific binding of IgM to the monolithic disk and additionally a product loss in the flow through of 20%. Nevertheless, calibration curves had high correlation coefficients and inter/intra-assay variability experiments proved sufficient precision of the method. A limit of quantification of 51.69 μg/mL for purified IgM and 48.40 μg/mL for IgM in cell culture supernatant could be calculated. The binding capacity was consistent within the period of the study which included more than 200 cycles. The analysis time of less than 2 min is an advantage over existing chromatographic methods that rely on pore diffusion.

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P. Gagnon, G. Rodriquez, S. Zaidi

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2402-2404

A basic method for dissociation and fractionation of monoclonal IgG heavy and light chain is described. It employs less noxious and hazardous reagents than the classical mercaptoethanol/propionic acid process and replaces size exclusion chromatography with cation exchange on a monolith to improve productivity. Significant scope remains to refine the conditions. The method can be applied to other disulfide bonded proteins with significant affinity for cation exchangers.

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P. Gagnon, F. Hensel, S. Lee, S. Zaidi

Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2405-2412

This study documents the presence of stable complexes between monoclonal IgM and genomic DNA in freshly harvested mammalian cell culture supernatants. 75% of the complex population elutes from size exclusion chromatography with the same retention volume as IgM. DNA comprises 24% of the complex mass, corresponding to an average of 347 base pairs per IgM molecule, distributed among fragments smaller than about 115 base pairs. Electrostatic interactions appear to provide most of the binding energy, with secondary stabilization by hydrogen bonding and metal affinity. DNA-dominant complexes are unretained by bioaffinity chromatography, while IgM-dominant complexes are retained and coelute with IgM. DNA-dominant complexes are repelled from cation exchangers, while IgM-dominant complexes are retained and partially dissociated. Partially dissociated forms elute in order of decreasing DNA content. The same pattern is observed with hydrophobic interaction chromatography. All complex compositions bind to anion exchangers and elute in order of increasing DNA content. A porous particle anion exchanger was unable to dissociate DNA from IgM. Monolithic anion exchangers, offering up to15-fold higher charge density, achieved nearly complete complex dissociation. The charge-dense monolith surface appears to outcompete IgM for the DNA. Monoliths also exhibit more than double the IgM dynamic binding capacity of the porous particle anion exchanger, apparently due to better surface accessibility and more efficient mass transfer.

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K. Ralla, F. Anton, T. Scheper, C. Kasper

Journal of Chromatography A, 1216 (2009) 2671-2675

The aim of this study was to develop a chromatographic method, as a substitute for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, for the rapid and simultaneous detection of IgG, insulin, and transferrin present in a cell culture medium. Conjoint liquid chromatography (conjoint LC) using monolithic disks was applied for this purpose. An anion-exchange disk was combined with a Protein G affinity disk in a preparative HPLC system. IgG bound to the Protein G disk, whereas transferrin and insulin were captured on the quaternary ammonium (QA) disk. Using this method, it was possible to simultaneously determine the concentrations of IgG, transferrin, and insulin in the cell culture medium. Thus, conjoint LC could be used for the rapid and simultaneous detection of different proteins present in a cell culture medium.

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D. Josić, Y.P. Lim, A. Štrancar, W. Reutter

Journal of Chromatography B, 662 (1994) 217-226

The separation of annexins, calcium-binding plasma membrane-associated proteins from rat liver and Morris hepatoma 7777 by high-performance membrane chromatography (HPMC) is described. The annexins with low molecular masses, CBP 33 and CBP 35, and the annexin with a high molecular mass, CBP 65/67, can be separated within 10 min from one another by anion-exchange HPMC under non-denaturing conditions. The separation devices used consist of compact, porous disks (QuickDisk) on the one hand and of bundled membranes made of cellulose fibers (MemSep) on the other. Both have been found to be equally well suited for this separation. The annexins obtained in this way are subsequently bound to epoxy-activated porons disks and used for the separation of monospecific polyclonal antibodies against the annexin CBP 65/67.

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N. D. Ostryanina, G. P. Vlasov, T. B. Tennikova

Journal of Chromatography A, 949 (2002) 163–171

High-performance monolithic disk chromatography (HPMDC), including its affinity mode, is a very efficient method for fast separations of biological molecules of different sizes and shapes. In this paper, protein and peptide ligands, immobilized on the inner surface of thin, monolithic supports (Convective Interaction Media or CIM® disks), have been used to develop methods for fast, quantitative affinity fractionation of pools of polyclonal antibodies from blood sera of rabbits, immunized with complex protein–peptide conjugates. The combination of several disks with different affinity functionalities in the same cartridge enables the separation of different antibodies to be achieved within a few minutes. The apparent dissociation constants of affinity complexes were determined by frontal analysis. Variation of elution flow rate over a broad range does not affect the affinity separation characteristics. Indifferent synthetic peptides used as biocompatible spacers do not change the affinity properties of the ligands. The highly reproducible results of immunoaffinity HPMDC are compared with data obtained by widely used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

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T. V. Gupalova, O. V. Lojkina, V. G. Palagnuk, A. A. Totolian, T.B. Tennikova

Journal of Chromatography A, 949 (2002) 185–193

The recombinantly produced different forms of protein G, namely monofunctional immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding, monofunctional serum albumin (SA) binding and bifunctional IgG/SA binding proteins G, are compared with respect to their specific affinities to blood IgG and SA. The affinity mode of the recently developed high-performance monolithic disk chromatography has been used for fast quantitative investigations. Using single affinity disks as well as two discs stacked into one separation unit, one order of magnitude in adsorption capacities for IgG and SA were found both for monofunctional and bifunctional protein G forms used as specific affinity ligands. However, despite the adsorption difference observed, the measured dissociation constants of the affinity complexes seemed to be very close. The analytical procedure developed can be realized within a couple of minutes. Up-scaling of the developed technology was carried out using another type of monolithic materials, i.e. CIM® affinity tubes.

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