2000

T. B. Tennikova, R. Freitag

J. High Resol. Chromatogr. 2000, 23, (1) 27–38

Monolithic stationary phases have revolutionized protein chromatography because they combine speed, capacity, and resolution in a unique manner. Since such stationary phases contain no particles but only flow-through pores, the usual mass transfer restrictions to the chromatography of large molecules are not observed and extremely fast separations become possible. Recently the area of application of monolith chromatography has been extended to the separation and analysis of small molecules and plasmid DNA. This review summarizes the state of art in high performance monolith and especially high performance monolithic disk chromatography (HPMDC). The current understanding of the theory of protein HPMDC is summarized, while an introduction to the evolving field of small molecule HPMDC is attempted. The basic differences between the monolithic disks and columns packed with conventional stationary phases (including perfusion and micropellicular particles) but also monolithic columns (porous rods) are outlined. Finally, the potential of HPMDC to analytical and preparative biochromatography is demonstrated by a discussion of recent applications of chromatographic disks for protein isolation and bioprocess analysis.

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K. Branović, A. Buchacher, M. Barut, A. Štrancar, D. Josić

Journal of Chromatography A, 903 (2000) 21–32

In this paper, the application of monolithic columns for downstream processing of different clotting factor IX concentrates is shown. Determination of basic chromatographic conditions as well as investigations on the regeneration of disk- and tube-shaped monolithic columns using human serum albumin as a model protein, were performed. Separation of factor IX and vitronectin, a possible impurity in commercial factor IX concentrates was accomplished using disk-shaped monolithic columns. These same applications were also carried out with identical results on up-scaled tube-shaped monolithic columns. Since these media allow very fast separations, this method can be successfully applied not only to an in-process control of the purification of factor IX but also to other biopolymers from human plasma. Besides, the same application on the up-scaled tube-shaped monolithic column was successfully carried out.

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K. Amatschek, R. Necina, R. Hahn, E. Schallaun, H. Schwinn, D. Josić, A. Jungbauer

Journal of Separation science, 23 (2000) 47-58

FVIII is a very complex molecule of great therapeutic significance. It is purified by a sequence of chromatographic steps including immunoaffinity chromatography. A peptide affinity chromatography method has been developed using peptides derived from a combinatorial library. Spot technology using cellulose sheets has been applied for this purpose. The dual positional scanning strategy was used for identification of the amino acids in random positions. Approximately 5000 possible candidates found in the first screening round were reduced to a panel of 36. Six candidates have been selected empirically. Five peptides seem to be directed against the light chain of FVIII, one peptide seems to be directed against the heavy chain. The peptides have been immobilized on conventional beaded material and CIM polymethacrylate monoliths. Much better performance with respect to capacity and selectivity has been observed with the monolithic material. Exposure of the ligand and its ensuing accessibility are responsible for these properties.

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L. G. Berruex, R. Freitag, T. B. Tennikova

Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 24 (2000) 95–104

A novel biochromatographic principle is introduced taking the quantitative analysis of affinity interactions between antibodies and immobilized group specific ligands (protein A, G, and L) as example. The name high performance monolith affinity chromatography (HPMAC) is proposed for this technique. HPMAC uses rigid, macroporous monoliths, so-called convective interaction media (CIM™)-disks, as stationary phase. An optimized procedure is described for the covalent immobilization of the group specific affinity ligands to such disks. The binding of polyclonal bovine IgG and a recombinant human antibody (type IgG1-κ) to all affinity disks is discussed. An essential feature of HPMAC is its compatibility to unusually high mobile phase flow rates (>4 ml/min). Chromatographic experiments are thus completed within seconds without significant loss in binding capacity and retentive power. This makes HPMAC a promising tool for applications in fast process monitoring or screening. As an example for the former, the direct quantitative isolation of recombinant antibodies from serum-free culture supernatant is demonstrated.

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H. LeThanh, B. Lendl

Analytica Chimica Acta 422 (2000) 63–69

A fully automated method for the rapid determination of organic acids (citric-, malic- and tartaric acid) and sugars (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) in soft drinks by sequential injection Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is presented. A convective interaction media (CIM) disc carrying quaternary amino moieties was added as a solid phase extraction column to the flow system. Upon injection of a sample the organic acids were completely retained on the CIM disc whereas sugars passed to the flow cell. The organic acids were subsequently eluted by injection of an alkaline (pH 8.5) 1 M sodium chloride solution and recorded in their fully deprotonated form as a second flow injection peak. In both cases, the FTIR spectra corresponding to the peak maxima were selected for data evaluation. Two partial least squares models, one for sugars and the other for organic acids, were constructed based on the analysis of standards containing all six analytes. The developed method was applied to natural samples yielding results which were in good agreement with those obtained by an external reference method (enzymatic test kits). Deviations in the results were 3.4. and 4.1% for citric and malic acid and ranged from 4.7–5.1% for the sugars. The developed method is characterized by its short analysis time, experimental simplicity and its potential applications in routine analysis and process control.

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L. G. Berruex, R. Freitag, T. B. Tennikova

Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 24 (2000) 95–104

A novel biochromatographic principle is introduced taking the quantitative analysis of affinity interactions between antibodies and immobilized group specific ligands (protein A, G, and L) as example. The name high performance monolith affinity chromatography (HPMAC) is proposed for this technique. HPMAC uses rigid, macroporous monoliths, so-called convective interaction media (CIM™)-disks, as stationary phase. An optimized procedure is described for the covalent immobilization of the group specific affinity ligands to such disks. The binding of polyclonal bovine IgG and a recombinant human antibody (type IgG1-κ) to all affinity disks is discussed. An essential feature of HPMAC is its compatibility to unusually high mobile phase flow rates (>4 ml/min). Chromatographic experiments are thus completed within seconds without significant loss in binding capacity and retentive power. This makes HPMAC a promising tool for applications in fast process monitoring or screening. As an example for the former, the direct quantitative isolation of recombinant antibodies from serum-free culture supernatant is demonstrated.

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M. Vodopivec, M. Berovič, J. Jančar, A. Podgornik, A. Štrancar

Analytica Chimica Acta 407 (2000) 105-110

A new polymeric macroporous material, Convective Interaction Media (CIM) was applied as a support for glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilisation. CIM epoxy disks with the immobilised enzyme were integrated as an enzyme reactor in a flow injection analysis (FIA) system and applied to on-line monitoring of glucose during cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. The developed CIM GOD disk–FIA system exhibited good signal reproducibility and satisfactory long-term stability with a linear response in the range 10–200 mg l-1. The CIM disk applied as an enzyme reactor proved to be a successful replacement for conventionally used packed-bed columns and as such it was well suited for on-line monitoring of bioprocesses.

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1999

A. Podgornik, M. Barut, J. Jančar, A. Štrancar, T. Tennikova

Analytical Chemistry, 1999, Vol. 71, No. 15, 2986-2991

High-performance membrane chromatography (HPMC) proved to be a very efficient method for fast protein separations. Recently, it was shown to be applicable also for the isocratic chromatography of plasmid DNA conformations. However, no study about the separation of small molecules has been performed until now. In this work, we investigated the possibility of gradient and isocratic HPMC of small molecules with Convective Interaction Media disks of different chemistries and tried to explain the mechanism that enables their separation. We demonstrated that it is possible to achieve efficient separations of oligonucleotides and peptides in the ion-exchange mode as well as the separation of small hydrophobic molecules in the reversed-phase mode. It was shown that similar peak resolution can be provided in both gradient and isocratic modes.

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A. Podgornik, M. Barut, J. Jančar, A. Štrancar

Journal of Chromatography A, 848 (1999) 51–60

In this work, the isocratic separation of oligonucleotides in the ion-exchange mode on thin glycidylmethacrylate–ethylenedimethacrylate (GMA–EDMA) monoliths in the form of commercially available CIM (Convective Interaction Media) disks is presented. It was found that isocratic separation occurs even on monoliths with a thickness of only 0.75 mm. Peak broadening of the components retained on the monolith is proportional to the retention time, which in turn is proportional to the thickness of the monolith. Peak height is inversely proportional to the retention time. From these results it can be concluded that the mechanism of the separation on such monoliths is similar to that in HPLC columns filled with conventional porous particles. The height equivalent to a theoretical plate of GMA–EDMA monoliths is calculated to be 18.0 μm. The capacity factor k′ depends, exponentially, on the salt concentration. The Z factor calculated from fitted equations increases linearly with the oligonucleotide’s length. It was also found that the difference between peak retention volume slightly increases with the flow-rate when the experiments are performed in the range from 0.5 to 7 ml/min. From the similarities between the isocratic separations on conventional columns and on thin GMA–EDMA monoliths it is reasonable to believe that separation based on a multiple adsorption/desorption process also occurs in thin monoliths.

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D. Josić, A. Štrancar

Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1999, 38, 333-342

For fast separation of biopolymers, recently developed media have become increasingly widespread. They consist either of membranes or of compact, porous disks and tubes, both called Convective Interaction Media (CIM). Separation can be carried out in every mode, e.g., ion-exchange, reversed-phase, hydrophobic-interaction, and affinity recognition. The units can be used for analytical as well as for preparative purposes. Such fast analytical units will allow separations within less than 10 s and can therefore be used for in-process analysis. The advantages and disadvantages of such analytical and preparative separations are discussed along with technical problems which have been solved.

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H. Podgornik, A. Podgornik, A. Perdih

Analytical Biochemistry 272, 43–47 (1999)

The HPLC separation of lignin peroxidase isoenzymes using Convective Interaction Media disks containing quaternary amine and diethylaminoethyl ion-exchange active groups is proposed. In contrast to standard HPLC procedures the separation can be performed within a few minutes without considerably affecting the separation resolution. The method is reproducible and gives a linear response of integrated peak area to protein concentration for all measured isoenzymes. The separation resolution is retained unchanged by applying crude culture filtrate instead of a sample previously frozen and dialyzed. The optimized method might therefore be used for on-line monitoring of lignin peroxidase isoenzyme composition during fermentation. On the other hand, the proposed method is comparable in time to the original method of lignin peroxidase activity measurement (proposed by Tien and Kirk), providing additionally the isoenzyme composition.

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1998

M. B. Tennikov, N. V. Gazdina, T. B. Tennikova, F. Švec

Journal of Chromatography A, 798 (1998) 55–64

The effect of porous structures of 2-mm thick diethylamine functionalized monolithic polymethacrylate discs on their chromatographic behavior in ion-exchange mode has been studied. Discs with small pores did not perform well because they exhibited high back pressure and substantial peak broadening. Discs characterized with pores larger than 1 000 nm did not provide good separations either because the time required for some protein molecules to traverse the length across the pore to reach the wall for adsorption/desorption process that is essential for the separation may be longer than their residence time within the matrix. Optimum pore size is centered at about 700 nm. Excellent separations have been achieved with these discs even at very steep gradients and high flow-rates which allow to shorten the separation times substantially.

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A. Štrancar, M. Barut, A. Podgornik, P. Koselj, D. Josić, A. Buchacher

LC-GC International – October 1998, 660-670

Separation supports based on convective interaction media (CIM) allow higher throughputs and separations; faster by one order of magnitude when compared with separation materials based on conventional porous particles (1). In the future, they may well play an important role in the production and quality control of diagnostic and therapeutic products based on large biomolecules. A major advantage of CIM is their use in control procedures during production processes — an important factor in satisfying the demands of regulatory authorities, both with regard to the registration of the product as a drug, and also in controlling the process in such a manner that immediate correction is possible should the process deviate from the prescribed path. The CIM supports can easily be scaled up because the larger units are made of the same material and can be used for fast separations on the preparative level. Additionally, these supports can be used for the ‘so-called’ conjoint liquid chromatography (CLC), by combining two or more discs with different ligand groups in the same housing. Finally, owing to their low back pressures and very fast response, CIM supports can be used as biosensors or bioreactors with immobilized enzymes.

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C. Kasper, L. Meringova, R. Freitag, T. Tennikova

Journal of Chromatography A, 798 (1998) 65-72

A fast affinity method for the semi-preparative isolation of recombinant Protein G from E. coli cell lysate is proposed. Rigid, macroporous affinity discs based on a glycidyl methacrylate–co-ethylene dimethacrylate polymer were used as chromatographic supports. The specific ligands (here human immunoglobulin G, hIgG) were immobilized by the one-step reaction between native epoxy groups of the polymer surface and ϵ-amino groups of the IgG molecules. No intermediate spacer was necessary to reach full biological activity of the ligand. The globular affinity ligands are located directly on the pore wall surface and are thereby freely accessible to target molecules (here Protein G) migrating with the mobile phase through the pores. It is shown that the conditions chosen for the hIgG immobilization do not involve an active site of the protein and thus do not bias the formation of the affinity complex. Chromatographically determined constants of dissociation of hIgG–Protein G affinity complexes confirm the high selectivity of this separation method. Two different aspects of the affinity separation are discussed, which differ mostly in terms of scale. In disc chromatography, high volumetric flow velocities are possible because of the small backpressure. Since in addition the mass transfer is more efficient, it becomes possible to achieve very short analysis times. The discs proposed can be used in a single-step enrichment of Protein G from lysates of non-pathogenic E. coli. Gel electrophoresis data are used to demonstrate the high degree of purity achieved for the final product.

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D. Josić, H. Schwinn, A. Štrancar, A. Podgornik, M. Barut, Y. P. Lim, M. Vodopivec

Journal of Chromatography A, 803 (1998) 61–71

Different ligands with high molecular masses are immobilized on compact, porous separation units and used for affinity chromatography. In subsequent experiments different enzymes are immobilized and used for converting substrates with low and high molecular masses. Disk or tube with immobilized concanavalin A (ConA) are used as model systems for lectin affinity chromatography. The enzyme glucose oxidase is used as a standard protein to test the ConA units. Subsequently glycoproteins from plasma membranes of rat liver are separated, using units with immobilized ConA. The enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV, which is used as a model protein in the experiments, is enriched about 40-fold in a single step, with a yield of over 90%. The results are only slightly better than those obtained with ConA when it is immobilized on bulk supports. The important improvement lies in the reduction of separation time to only 1 h. Experiments concerning the isolation of monoclonal antibodies against clotting factor VIII (FVIII) are carried out on disks, combining anion-exchange chromatography and protein A affinity chromatography as a model for multidimensional chromatography. Both IgG (bound to the protein A disk) and accompanying proteins (bound to the anion-exchange disk) from mouse ascites fluid are retarded and eluted separately. With the immobilized enzymes invertase and glucose oxidase (GOX) the corresponding substrates with low molecular masses, saccharose and glucose, are converted. It is shown that the amount of immobilized enzyme and the concentration of the substrate are responsible for the extent of the conversion, whereas the flow-rates used in the experiments have no effect at all. The influence of immobilization chemistry was investigated with GOX. Indirect immobilization with ConA as spacer proved to be the best alternative. With trypsin, immobilized on a disk, substrates with high molecular masses are digested in flow-through. For optimal digestion the proteins have to be denatured in the buffer for sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrlyamide gel electrophoresis prior to application. In contrast to the conversion of substrates with low molecular masses, flow-rates play an important part in conversion of substrates with high molecular masses. With lower flow-rates a higher degree of digestion is achieved.

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C. Kasper, L. Meringova, R. Freitag, T. Tennikova

Journal of Chromatography A, 798 (1998) 65-72

A fast affinity method for the semi-preparative isolation of recombinant Protein G from E. coli cell lysate is proposed. Rigid, macroporous affinity discs based on a glycidyl methacrylate–co-ethylene dimethacrylate polymer were used as chromatographic supports. The specific ligands (here human immunoglobulin G, hIgG) were immobilized by the one-step reaction between native epoxy groups of the polymer surface and ϵ-amino groups of the IgG molecules. No intermediate spacer was necessary to reach full biological activity of the ligand. The globular affinity ligands are located directly on the pore wall surface and are thereby freely accessible to target molecules (here Protein G) migrating with the mobile phase through the pores. It is shown that the conditions chosen for the hIgG immobilization do not involve an active site of the protein and thus do not bias the formation of the affinity complex. Chromatographically determined constants of dissociation of hIgG–Protein G affinity complexes confirm the high selectivity of this separation method. Two different aspects of the affinity separation are discussed, which differ mostly in terms of scale. In disc chromatography, high volumetric flow velocities are possible because of the small backpressure. Since in addition the mass transfer is more efficient, it becomes possible to achieve very short analysis times. The discs proposed can be used in a single-step enrichment of Protein G from lysates of non-pathogenic E. coli. Gel electrophoresis data are used to demonstrate the high degree of purity achieved for the final product.

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D. Josić, H. Schwinn, A. Štrancar, A. Podgornik, M. Barut, Y. P. Lim, M. Vodopivec

Journal of Chromatography A, 803 (1998) 61–71

Different ligands with high molecular masses are immobilized on compact, porous separation units and used for affinity chromatography. In subsequent experiments different enzymes are immobilized and used for converting substrates with low and high molecular masses. Disk or tube with immobilized concanavalin A (ConA) are used as model systems for lectin affinity chromatography. The enzyme glucose oxidase is used as a standard protein to test the ConA units. Subsequently glycoproteins from plasma membranes of rat liver are separated, using units with immobilized ConA. The enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV, which is used as a model protein in the experiments, is enriched about 40-fold in a single step, with a yield of over 90%. The results are only slightly better than those obtained with ConA when it is immobilized on bulk supports. The important improvement lies in the reduction of separation time to only 1 h. Experiments concerning the isolation of monoclonal antibodies against clotting factor VIII (FVIII) are carried out on disks, combining anion-exchange chromatography and protein A affinity chromatography as a model for multidimensional chromatography. Both IgG (bound to the protein A disk) and accompanying proteins (bound to the anion-exchange disk) from mouse ascites fluid are retarded and eluted separately. With the immobilized enzymes invertase and glucose oxidase (GOX) the corresponding substrates with low molecular masses, saccharose and glucose, are converted. It is shown that the amount of immobilized enzyme and the concentration of the substrate are responsible for the extent of the conversion, whereas the flow-rates used in the experiments have no effect at all. The influence of immobilization chemistry was investigated with GOX. Indirect immobilization with ConA as spacer proved to be the best alternative. With trypsin, immobilized on a disk, substrates with high molecular masses are digested in flow-through. For optimal digestion the proteins have to be denatured in the buffer for sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrlyamide gel electrophoresis prior to application. In contrast to the conversion of substrates with low molecular masses, flow-rates play an important part in conversion of substrates with high molecular masses. With lower flow-rates a higher degree of digestion is achieved.

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R. Giovannini, R. Freitag, T. B. Tennikova

Anal. Chem. 1998, 70, 3348-3354

Membrane adsorbers are well established in protein chromatography. The present paper investigated for the first time the behavior of polynucleotides on these stationary phases, taking a 7.2-kb predominantly supercoiled plasmid as example. Gradient and isocratic elution was studied. In contrast to protein high-performance membrane chromatography (HPMC), isocratic elution is possible in DNA chromatography. In the case of gradient elution, much higher salt concentrations can be used in the starting buffer. Under optimized conditions, both approaches led to a splitting of the single plasmid peak into three maximums, which corresponded to the threealbeit isolated bands in the agarose gel. Presumably the three fractions were supercoiled, nicked, and open circular plasmid DNA. Linearization of the plasmid lowered the adsorption energy, and the linearized plasmid eluted earlier than the nonlinearized one. The HPMC experiments were compared to similar ones performed using a conventional packed-bed anion-exchange column (BioScale Q2, 7 × 52 mm, 10-μm porous particles) and a novel monolithic-type anion-exchange column (UNO Q1, 7 × 35 mm). The results and characteristic differences observed in these experiments were interpreted in the light of the newly developed theory of HPMC.

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1997

A. Štrancar, M. Barut, A. Podgornik, P. Koselj, H. Schwinn, P. Raspor, D. Josić

Journal of Chromatography A, 760 (1997) 117-123

Membranes as well as compact porous disks are successfully used for fast analytical separations of biopolymers. So far, technical difficulties have prevented the proper scaling-up of the processes and the use of membranes and compact disks for preparative separations in a large scale. In this paper, the use of a compact porous tube for fast preparative separations of proteins is shown as a possible solution to these problems. The units have yielded good results, in terms of performance and speed of separation. The application of compact porous tubes for the preparative isolation of clotting factor VIII from human plasma shows that this method can even be used for the separation of very sensitive biopolymers. As far as yield and purity of the isolated proteins are concerned, the method was comparable to preparative column chromatography. The period of time required for separation was five times shorter than with corresponding column chromatographic methods. Compact porous disks made of the same support material can also be used for in-process analysis in order to control the separation. The quick response, which is obtained from these units within 5 to 60 s, allows close monitoring of the purification process.

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1996

A. Štrancar, P. Koselj, H. Schwinn, D. Josić

Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 68, No. 19, October 1, 1996

Production and downstream processing in biotechnology requires fast and accurate control of each step in the process. Improved techniques which can be validated are required in order to meet these demands. For these purposes, chromatographic units containing compact porous disks for fast separation of biopolymers were developed and investigated with regard to their performance and speed. The problems that have, in the past, arisen from the use of wide and flat separation units, such as membranes and disks, have chiefly been those of sample distribution and large void volumes before and behind the unit. Improvements in the construction of the cartridge have led to better performance of the compact porous disks and faster separation. Using these disks, three calibration standard proteins could be separated within less than 1 min by an anion-exchange, cation-exchange, and hydrophobic interaction mode. Such units can be used for in-process control in production and downstream processing of biopolymers, as was shown in experiments involving the purification of α1-antitrypsin and clotting factor IX and the immobilization of enzyme glucose oxidase on an epoxy-activated compact porous disk.

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