Hydrazide-activated (HDZ) columns were proven to be a product of choice for making the most effective immunoaffinity columns. They take advantage of a special hydrazide linkage that binds antibodies through the carbohydrate residues on their Fc regions. This leaves the antigen-binding domains fully accessible to enable the most effective capture of desired target (Figure bellow).
CIMac™ HDZ monoliths make HDZ-immobilized antibody columns even more effective. Because of their large channel size and the efficiency of convective mass transport, they eliminate the long loading residence times that are required for affinity chromatography on porous particle columns. Flow rates of 5–10 column volumes per minute allow complete purifications in a few minutes, even when the source material contains a low concentration of antigen. The same performance is achieved whether a small peptide or a large bio-assemblage like a virus particle or extracellular vesicle is isolated. The combination of HDZ monoliths and the immobilization protocol offers a strong tool for fast antigen isolation from complex biological sample (plasma, lysate, etc.) and consequently sensitive antigen quantification. An example of CIMac™ HDZ application is a purification of fibrinogen from human plasma.

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Immunoaffinity columns using antibodies as ligands against mammalian proteins could be used for different applications in protein expression control and, if a standard available, for direct protein quantification in complex sample solutions. Additionally, these columns are ideal for polishing step of recombinant proteins, such as mammalian receptor Fc fusion proteins. Most importantly, such columns could extract a significant amount of a single membrane protein from native source, suitable for downstream analyses, such as mass spec analysis of their glycans. Immunoaffinity chromatographic monoliths against RAE-1 GPI anchored glycoprotein were developed (CIMmic HDZ - @RAE-1 column) as a part of Glycomet project with the main goal to analyze the antigen glycoprofile.

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The upstream and downstream monoclonal antibody (mAb) bioprocessing makes them susceptible to physical and chemical modifications. In the biotechnological production process of mAbs, structural variations may arise due to some enzymatic activity. Antibody charge variants have gained considerable attention in the biotechnology industry due to their potential influence on stability and biological activity and cation-exchange chromatography (CEX) is one of the typical approaches for mAb charge variant analyses. We tested several CEX columns under different conditions and the best column for isotype separation was weak cation-exchanging CIMac COOH chromatographic monolith in pH gradient. We have proven a flow independent separation of mAb charge variants and in this way, a resolution comparable to classical CEX particulate-based analytical columns was achieved in only 6 min analysis time.

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CIMac™ r-Protein A Analytical Column is short bed, high performance monolithic column . Primarly is intended for fast, efficient, and reproducible qualitative and quantitative analyses of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). It is suitable for use with HPLC and UPLC systems. Quantification of Immunoglobulin G is possible between 0.2 μg and 20 μg. Its small volume and short column length allow operation at high volumetric flow rates ( up to 3mL/min). The information about product quantity and purity is thus generated in just 1 minute! The column has innovative symmetric design for bi-directional flow, also extending column lifetime.

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The demand for human immunoglobulin is invariably increasing on an annual basis. To satisfy demands, different manufacturing processes are used to isolate immunoglobulins from human plasma. A quest for alternative paths in manufacturing not only requires development of the most economical manufacturing process, but also a rapid method development and development of reliable analytics for manufacturing monitoring. For an efficient improvement of the purification methods as well as for in-process control during manufacturing stage, the usage of reliable and fast analytical techniques are of crucial importance.

Fast and reliable fingerprint-based method for characterization of immunoglobulin G (IgG) prepared from Cohn I+II+III paste in two chromatographic steps is presented. The fingerprint method bases on partial separation of proteins in linear gradient on CIMac QA 0.1 mL column. Partial separation of proteins does not allow simple quantitative analysis of the samples during the IgG production from Cohn I + II + III paste, however, a very accurate qualitative information about the composition of the sample can be obtained in less than 5 minutes.

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Enrichment of phosphopeptides prior to LC-MS analysis is a crucial sample preparation step because of their low stoichiometry in biological sample, longer retention on reversed phase columns, and lower ionization efficiency compared to non-phosphorylated peptides [1].The use of metal oxides, most prominently of TiO2 enabled efficient and relatively simple phosphopeptide-enrichment. In this study a new monolithic column from BIA Separations containing immobilized TiO2-nanoparticles was tested for its ability to enrich phosphopeptides. The TiO2-column was also tested for possible carryover originating from biological samples. In conclusion, tested monolithic TiO2 columns show significant binding ability for phosphopeptides and are considered as suitable for phosphopeptide enrichment.

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Monolithic ion exchange CIM® (Convective Interaction Media) columns have been proven in quantitative analysis of different immunoglobulins such as IgM and IgG from human plasma or cell supernatants. The separation mechanism is based on ionic interactions between the ion exchange monolith and immunoglobulin that are controlled by salt concentration. Here we present another possibility of IgM determination based on monolithic CIM® OH columns where the interactions may be controlled by changes in salt concentration or by pH increase. A method for quantitative HPLC determination of IgM in cell supernatant with fluorimetric detection was developed on CIM® OH column (0.34 mL) by means of pH increase. Optimal separation of IgM from cell supernatant matrix was achieved by combining acetate and phosphate buffer in a suitable gradient profile. Two different quantification methods, i.e. calibration curve and standard addition.

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Interactions between antibodies and their antigens are highly selective and therefore immensely popular for affinity chromatography. Consequently, numereous antibody immobilizations were performed on monolithic supports via different activation chemistries in the last decade. Despite the work already done there was no systematic study, where as many as possible activation chemistries were tested for the immobilization of a model monoclonal antibody with subsequent chromatographic characterization of the affinity support. In this work, various preactivated CIM monolithic columns were used for the immobilization of a model monoclonal IgG.

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Biological samples often consist of a main component, such as albumin in serum, and many other constituents, present in smaller quantities, but nevertheless of high importance in biological systems. When detection of the low-abundance molecules is needed, the main component could interfere with the analyte, complicating the analysis or even making it impossible. In such cases a possible approach is to remove the interfering main component from the sample before the analysis.

Monolithic columns (CIM®) are a great foundation to build affinity chromatography methods, as they offer fast flow rates and can be modified to accomodate various ligands. We selected two most promising approaches for oriented binding of antibodies to the monolithic support. One approach was to bind antibodies to a protein A (pA) column with consequent crosslinking of the protein complex. The other approach was to chemically activate antibodies and bind them selectively to hydrazide-modified (HDZ) monolith surface.

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Fast diagnosis of different infections is a crucial for a successful medical treatment. For diagnosis of certain diseases, separation of IgG and IgM in human serum is required to prevent interference or competing. This is usually achieved by adding adsorbent containing antihuman antibodies to the sample. Incubation from half to one hour is needed to achieve the complete removal of the antibody.

A quicker way to achieve the removal of antibody would be the use of a chromatographic support with specific ligand, which selectively binds the antibody. For example, a Protein G column can be used for removal of IgG. This is faster, but also much more expensivfe way of removing IgG's.

CIM Convective Interaction Media stationary phases represent a novel generation of stationary phases for liquid chromatography. Because of their monolithic structure, being designed for the separation and purification of macromolecules, they exhibit a higher dynamic capacity for very alrge molecules in comparison to traditional stationary phases, combined with much shorter process time that further result in a decreased loss of the biologic activity.

In this work, we present low price ligands (coupled to CIM chromatographic support), which can be used for efficient separation of IgG and IgM antibodies.

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In order to enable the detection of low abundance proteins from human plasma, it is necessary to remove high abundance proteins. Among them, human serum albumin and immonoglobulin G represent more than 75 % of all abundance proteins. There are many strategies developed for an efficient removal of these two main proteins, the majority of them rely on highly selective, yet expensive affinity techniques. In this work an affinity monolithic column was used for the depletion of IgG. For the removal of HSA we tested an alternative - complementary approach, where an ion-exchange mode was used as one of the depletion steps. the results were compared to the ones obtained by by using the prseudoaffinity columns.

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Human plasma is a rich and readily accessible source for the detection of diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for various human diseases. These are usually proteins that are present in human plasma in extremely low concentrations and are often masked by the high abundance proteins like immunoglobulin G (IgG) and human serum albumin (HSA), which represent over 75 % of all proteins. In order to enable the detection of potential biomarkers, IgG and HSA should be efficiently removed from the starting sample. In this work an affinity and a pseudoaffinity chromatographic column, used for an efficient removal of IgG and HSA from human plasma, were thoroughly characterized. A CIM monolithic column bearing Protein G ligands was
used for the removal of IgG, and a column bearing an anti-HSA dye was used for the depletion of HSA.

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CIM Convective Interaction Media® are polymer-based monolithic supports which were introduced for chromatographic analyses, in-process control, solid phase extraction, and purification of target biomolecules, both on an analytical and on a preparative scale 1, 2. CIM supports perform high-resolution separations within seconds. This is predominantly due to the convective mass transport of the biomolecules between the mobile and stationary phases and the very low dead volume of the separation unit. One of the main concerns in the last few years was the batch-to-batch reproducibility of the monoliths during manufacturing and the possibility of using the monolithic supports for validated analytical methods. The batch-to-batch reproducibility in product preparation as well as its stability during analytical work should fulfill all the requirements for a validated analytical method. To demonstrate that this is possible, we have selected one complex example – the determination of impurities in immunoglobulins (IgGs) where a multidimensional, so called CLC (Conjoint Liquid Chromatography), approach combining the ion exchange and affinity chromatography was needed to properly analyze the sample.

Therefore, two CIM Protein G disks and one CIM QA disk were placed in series in one housing. Binding conditions were optimized in a way that the IgGs were bound to the CIM Protein G disks while Transferrin and Albumin were separated on a CIM QA disk. A complete separation of all three proteins was achieved in five minutes.

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IgM can be used for several purposes such as early detection of certain diseases or, when labelled, localized cancer tumours. For their purification commonly chromatography is used. Methods for purifying such big molecules (M.w. around 950 kDa) are usually long and time consuming since these molecules have extremely low mobility therefore mass transfer between mobile and stationary phases is significantly reduced. When purified using affinity mode, serious decrease in IgM activity can occur because of long exposure to low pH in which they are unstable. Furthermore, because of their size, the IgM capacity of convenctional resins is rather low. CIM monoliths were already successfully used for fast separation of large molecules. In this work we tested applicability of anion-exchange CIM monolithic columns for preparation of IgM.

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Isolation and purification of proteins, peptides and polynucleotides as well as fractionation of biological mixtures are of great importance both for the solution of theoretical problems in chemistry and biology and the
realization of practical plans connected, in particular, with the production of medicines on the basis of large biomolecules. An important problem in the production of biological substances for medicine is to work out the step of their isolation and fine purification, e.g. creation of high performance separation methods, particularly, the chromatographic techniques. Here, fast and efficient affinity separations based on dynamical interaction of biocomplements play very important role.

High Performance Membrane (Monolith) Chromatography (HPMC) allows to solve all problems of High Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) demonstrating a number of number of distinct advantages. A small thickness of separation layer and opened structure of throughput channels where the separation takes place cause minimum difussion resistance for normal mass transport of the substances as well as low working back pressure and thus, the possibility of use of high elution flow rates.

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A large number of diagnostics and several therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been approved worldwide and many more are expected to be approved and licensed in the near future. The reality and the fact that purification or downstream processing can contribute up to 80% of the total production costs of a biopharmaceutical, enhance the need for efficient purification methods. Liquid chromatography provide high level of purity required for human use, increases productivity and has therfore become the method of choice for purification of biopharmaceuticals.

Purification of mAbs can be achieved by a number of chromatographic methods, Protein A and Protein G affinity chromatography being especially powerful enabling high product purity with single chromatographic step.

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There is an increasing demand for highly purified immunoglobulin G since they have found wide range of potential application in immunodiagnostics and immunotherapy.

Human IgG (hIgG) consists of four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4) that show differences in some of their physicochemical characterictics and biological properties.

The present research project aims to separate subclasses of hIgG using monolithic stationary phase by SMB technology.

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Protein L binds certain types of kappa light chains containing Fv and Fab fragments prepared from antibodies. In the case of IgG's the strong binding affinity refers only to human, mouse and rat species. It offers an advantage over Protein A and G as it binds to kappa light chains regardless of heavy chain subclass and can therefore binds up to 60% of IgG antibodies from human serum sample.

The main goal of our work was the preparation and characterization of CIM Protein L disks. First, Protein L disks with different densities of Protein L on the support were prepared in order to define the dependance of the IgG capacity on the amount of the bound Protein L. Further on, the method of characterization of Protein L disk using IgG was developed. In the end, the stability of the developed CIM Protein L disks in different solutions was tested in order to define the operating and storage conditions.

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Convective Interaction Technology (CIM®) offers a number of benefits for the purification of large molecules in comparison with conventional chromatography. The innovative matrix, cast as a single homogeneous piece, means that monolithic columns have a high pressure tolerance and allow fast operating flow rates.

Because the matrix structure is composed of large pores, mass transfer is essentially convective in contrast to conventional chromatography beads, where mass transfer is essentially diffusive. Therefore, CIM can be used at high flow rates without compromising binding capacity.

For these reasons, a monolithic column with anion exchange properties (CIM® QA) was selected to purify a very large protein (8 Mega Dalton) extracted from a marine mollusc.

Because 150 g of protein was required to perform preclinical trials, a scale-up of the process had to be designed and implemented. Early stage process development was carried out on an 8 mL column to determine the column loading capacity as well as the yield and the process reproducibility.

To improve binding on the column, stabilising agents had to be removed prior to this purification step. The protein had been observed to precipitate within hours of the removal of these reagents. Therefore, a suitable time frame for protein processing had to accommodate this instability.

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Found recently serine protease called, as tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) is able to dissolve efficiently the blood clots. Thus this protein seems to be extremely useful in clinical practice in the cases of heart attack victims.

Real process of fibrinolysis in human blood system represents very complicated network of simultaneous biological events. It is clear that t-PA has a branched set of functional complements with their own, and probably different, affinity to this enzyme. It seems to be possible and quite interesting to investigate all these pairs separately creating them in vitro. At the same time, it is clear that the affinity chromatography approach could become as the most convenient way to create such biological pairs.

The recently developed High Performance Membrane (Monolith) Chromatography (HPMC) is quite promising in this regard, because of its high capacity and selectivity, combined with low backpressure and short operation times. Due to the inherent speed of the isolation it facilitates the recovery of a biologically active product, since the exposure to putative denaturing influences.

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